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Changes In Branch expr-simplify Excluding Merge-Ins

This is equivalent to a diff from e461cb2819 to 24b0f66ac6

2018-09-24
21:07
Avoid incrementing the SQLITE_LOOKASIDE_MISS_SIZE stat before sqlite3_open() returns. Fix test script problem in lookaside.test. (check-in: 3bd94e4317 user: drh tags: branch-3.25)
2018-09-19
20:14
Reduce the size of Expr to 64-bytes. This works somewhat, but there are test failures. More importantly, the size reduction from 80- to 64-bytes has not lowered the schema memory usage, but it has made the code a little bigger and a little slower. So the initial evidence is that this Expr refactoring experiment is not working... (Leaf check-in: 24b0f66ac6 user: drh tags: expr-simplify)
17:24
Fix an issue in virtual table handling associated with the new Expr.x.pRight field. (check-in: 8487f84af0 user: drh tags: expr-simplify)
2018-09-18
19:40
Fix a problem building on Android with SQLITE_ENABLE_BATCH_ATOMIC_WRITE set. (check-in: e41e50fe74 user: dan tags: trunk)
18:08
Merge all recent trunk enhancements. (check-in: 655f065404 user: drh tags: expr-simplify)
17:50
Avoid incrementing the SQLITE_LOOKASIDE_MISS_SIZE stat before sqlite3_open() returns. Fix test script problem in lookaside.test. (check-in: e461cb2819 user: dan tags: trunk)
17:00
Enhance tester.tcl so that when "--malloctrace=1" is specified, the test generates self-contained Tcl scripts that present GUIs instead of *.sql files that require a separate program to interpret. (check-in: de2e3cbd08 user: dan tags: trunk)

Changes to src/alter.c.

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  if( pExpr->op==TK_TRIGGER 
   && pExpr->iColumn==p->iCol 
   && pWalker->pParse->pTriggerTab==p->pTab
  ){
    renameTokenFind(pWalker->pParse, p, (void*)pExpr);
  }else if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN 
   && pExpr->iColumn==p->iCol 

   && p->pTab==pExpr->pTab
  ){
    renameTokenFind(pWalker->pParse, p, (void*)pExpr);
  }
  return WRC_Continue;
}

/*
................................................................................
}

/*
** Walker expression callback used by "RENAME TABLE". 
*/
static int renameTableExprCb(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
  RenameCtx *p = pWalker->u.pRename;
  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN && p->pTab==pExpr->pTab ){



    renameTokenFind(pWalker->pParse, p, (void*)&pExpr->pTab);
  }
  return WRC_Continue;
}

/*
** Walker select callback used by "RENAME TABLE". 
*/







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  if( pExpr->op==TK_TRIGGER 
   && pExpr->iColumn==p->iCol 
   && pWalker->pParse->pTriggerTab==p->pTab
  ){
    renameTokenFind(pWalker->pParse, p, (void*)pExpr);
  }else if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN 
   && pExpr->iColumn==p->iCol 
   && ALWAYS(pExpr->eX==EX_Tab)
   && p->pTab==pExpr->x.pTab
  ){
    renameTokenFind(pWalker->pParse, p, (void*)pExpr);
  }
  return WRC_Continue;
}

/*
................................................................................
}

/*
** Walker expression callback used by "RENAME TABLE". 
*/
static int renameTableExprCb(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
  RenameCtx *p = pWalker->u.pRename;
  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN 
   && ALWAYS(pExpr->eX==EX_Tab)
   && p->pTab==pExpr->x.pTab
  ){
    renameTokenFind(pWalker->pParse, p, (void*)&pExpr->x.pTab);
  }
  return WRC_Continue;
}

/*
** Walker select callback used by "RENAME TABLE". 
*/

Changes to src/attach.c.

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        pExpr->op = TK_NULL;
      }else{
        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pFix->pParse, "%s cannot use variables", pFix->zType);
        return 1;
      }
    }
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf) ) break;
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){

      if( sqlite3FixSelect(pFix, pExpr->x.pSelect) ) return 1;
    }else{



      if( sqlite3FixExprList(pFix, pExpr->x.pList) ) return 1;

    }

    if( sqlite3FixExpr(pFix, pExpr->pRight) ){
      return 1;


    }
    pExpr = pExpr->pLeft;
  }
  return 0;
}
int sqlite3FixExprList(
  DbFixer *pFix,     /* Context of the fixation */







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        pExpr->op = TK_NULL;
      }else{
        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pFix->pParse, "%s cannot use variables", pFix->zType);
        return 1;
      }
    }
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf) ) break;
    switch( pExpr->eX ){
      case EX_Select: {
        if( sqlite3FixSelect(pFix, pExpr->x.pSelect) ) return 1;

        break;
      }
      case EX_List: {
        if( sqlite3FixExprList(pFix, pExpr->x.pList) ) return 1;
        break;
      }
      case EX_Right: {
        if( sqlite3FixExpr(pFix, pExpr->x.pRight) ) return 1;

        break;
      }
    }
    pExpr = pExpr->pLeft;
  }
  return 0;
}
int sqlite3FixExprList(
  DbFixer *pFix,     /* Context of the fixation */

Changes to src/delete.c.

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    }else{
      int i;
      for(i=0; i<pPk->nKeyCol; i++){
        Expr *p = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_ID, pTab->aCol[pPk->aiColumn[i]].zName);
        pEList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pEList, p);
      }
      pLhs = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_VECTOR, 0, 0);
      if( pLhs ){
        pLhs->x.pList = sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pEList, 0);
      }
    }
  }

  /* duplicate the FROM clause as it is needed by both the DELETE/UPDATE tree
  ** and the SELECT subtree. */
  pSrc->a[0].pTab = 0;
  pSelectSrc = sqlite3SrcListDup(pParse->db, pSrc, 0);







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    }else{
      int i;
      for(i=0; i<pPk->nKeyCol; i++){
        Expr *p = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_ID, pTab->aCol[pPk->aiColumn[i]].zName);
        pEList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pEList, p);
      }
      pLhs = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_VECTOR, 0, 0);
      sqlite3PExprAddExprList(pParse, pLhs, pEList);


    }
  }

  /* duplicate the FROM clause as it is needed by both the DELETE/UPDATE tree
  ** and the SELECT subtree. */
  pSrc->a[0].pTab = 0;
  pSelectSrc = sqlite3SrcListDup(pParse->db, pSrc, 0);

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*/
char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr){
  int op;
  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);
  if( pExpr->flags & EP_Generic ) return 0;
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_SELECT ){
    assert( pExpr->flags&EP_xIsSelect );
    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr);
  }
  if( op==TK_REGISTER ) op = pExpr->op2;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
  if( op==TK_CAST ){
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
    return sqlite3AffinityType(pExpr->u.zToken, 0);
  }
#endif
  if( (op==TK_AGG_COLUMN || op==TK_COLUMN) && pExpr->pTab ){

    return sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pExpr->pTab, pExpr->iColumn);
  }
  if( op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN ){
    assert( pExpr->pLeft->flags&EP_xIsSelect );
    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(
        pExpr->pLeft->x.pSelect->pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr
    );
  }
  return pExpr->affinity;
}

................................................................................
/*
** Skip over any TK_COLLATE operators and any unlikely()
** or likelihood() function at the root of an expression.
*/
Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(Expr *pExpr){
  while( pExpr && ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Skip) ){
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Unlikely) ){
      assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
      assert( pExpr->x.pList->nExpr>0 );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_FUNCTION );
      pExpr = pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;
    }else{
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE );
      pExpr = pExpr->pLeft;
    }
................................................................................
  CollSeq *pColl = 0;
  Expr *p = pExpr;
  while( p ){
    int op = p->op;
    if( p->flags & EP_Generic ) break;
    if( (op==TK_AGG_COLUMN || op==TK_COLUMN
          || op==TK_REGISTER || op==TK_TRIGGER)
     && p->pTab!=0

    ){
      /* op==TK_REGISTER && p->pTab!=0 happens when pExpr was originally
      ** a TK_COLUMN but was previously evaluated and cached in a register */
      int j = p->iColumn;
      if( j>=0 ){
        const char *zColl = p->pTab->aCol[j].zColl;
        pColl = sqlite3FindCollSeq(db, ENC(db), zColl, 0);
      }
      break;
    }
    if( op==TK_CAST || op==TK_UPLUS ){
      p = p->pLeft;
      continue;
................................................................................
      pColl = sqlite3GetCollSeq(pParse, ENC(db), 0, p->u.zToken);
      break;
    }
    if( p->flags & EP_Collate ){
      if( p->pLeft && (p->pLeft->flags & EP_Collate)!=0 ){
        p = p->pLeft;
      }else{
        Expr *pNext  = p->pRight;
        /* The Expr.x union is never used at the same time as Expr.pRight */
        assert( p->x.pList==0 || p->pRight==0 );
        /* p->flags holds EP_Collate and p->pLeft->flags does not.  And
        ** p->x.pSelect cannot.  So if p->x.pLeft exists, it must hold at
        ** least one EP_Collate. Thus the following two ALWAYS. */
        if( p->x.pList!=0 && ALWAYS(!ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect)) ){
          int i;
          for(i=0; ALWAYS(i<p->x.pList->nExpr); i++){
            if( ExprHasProperty(p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, EP_Collate) ){
              pNext = p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;
              break;
            }
          }


        }
        p = pNext;
      }
    }else{
      break;
    }
  }
................................................................................
static char comparisonAffinity(Expr *pExpr){
  char aff;
  assert( pExpr->op==TK_EQ || pExpr->op==TK_IN || pExpr->op==TK_LT ||
          pExpr->op==TK_GT || pExpr->op==TK_GE || pExpr->op==TK_LE ||
          pExpr->op==TK_NE || pExpr->op==TK_IS || pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT );
  assert( pExpr->pLeft );
  aff = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->pLeft);
  if( pExpr->pRight ){
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pExpr->pRight, aff);
  }else if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr, aff);
  }else if( aff==0 ){
    aff = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
  }
  return aff;
}

................................................................................
** If the left hand expression has a collating sequence type, then it is
** used. Otherwise the collation sequence for the right hand expression
** is used, or the default (BINARY) if neither expression has a collating
** type.
**
** Argument pRight (but not pLeft) may be a null pointer. In this case,
** it is not considered.




*/
CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(
  Parse *pParse, 
  Expr *pLeft, 
  Expr *pRight
){
  CollSeq *pColl;
  assert( pLeft );
  if( pLeft->flags & EP_Collate ){
................................................................................
    pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pLeft);
    if( !pColl ){
      pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pRight);
    }
  }
  return pColl;
}








/*
** Generate code for a comparison operator.
*/
static int codeCompare(
  Parse *pParse,    /* The parsing (and code generating) context */
  Expr *pLeft,      /* The left operand */
................................................................................
  int dest,         /* Jump here if true.  */
  int jumpIfNull    /* If true, jump if either operand is NULL */
){
  int p5;
  int addr;
  CollSeq *p4;

  p4 = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pLeft, pRight);
  p5 = binaryCompareP5(pLeft, pRight, jumpIfNull);
  addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(pParse->pVdbe, opcode, in2, dest, in1,
                           (void*)p4, P4_COLLSEQ);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(pParse->pVdbe, (u8)p5);
  return addr;
}

................................................................................
Expr *sqlite3ExprForVectorField(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pVector,       /* The vector.  List of expressions or a sub-SELECT */
  int iField           /* Which column of the vector to return */
){
  Expr *pRet;
  if( pVector->op==TK_SELECT ){
    assert( pVector->flags & EP_xIsSelect );
    /* The TK_SELECT_COLUMN Expr node:
    **
    ** pLeft:           pVector containing TK_SELECT.  Not deleted.
    ** pRight:          not used.  But recursively deleted.
    ** iColumn:         Index of a column in pVector
    ** iTable:          0 or the number of columns on the LHS of an assignment
    ** pLeft->iTable:   First in an array of register holding result, or 0
................................................................................
  Expr *pExpr,          /* The comparison operation */
  int dest,             /* Write results into this register */
  u8 op,                /* Comparison operator */
  u8 p5                 /* SQLITE_NULLEQ or zero */
){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
  Expr *pRight = pExpr->pRight;
  int nLeft = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
  int i;
  int regLeft = 0;
  int regRight = 0;
  u8 opx = op;
  int addrDone = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);

................................................................................
**
** Also propagate EP_Propagate flags up from Expr.x.pList to Expr.flags,
** if appropriate.
*/
static void exprSetHeight(Expr *p){
  int nHeight = 0;
  heightOfExpr(p->pLeft, &nHeight);
  heightOfExpr(p->pRight, &nHeight);
  if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect) ){
    heightOfSelect(p->x.pSelect, &nHeight);
  }else if( p->x.pList ){


    heightOfExprList(p->x.pList, &nHeight);
    p->flags |= EP_Propagate & sqlite3ExprListFlags(p->x.pList);






  }
  p->nHeight = nHeight + 1;
}

/*
** Set the Expr.nHeight variable using the exprSetHeight() function. If
** the height is greater than the maximum allowed expression depth,
** leave an error in pParse.
**
** Also propagate all EP_Propagate flags from the Expr.x.pList into
** Expr.flags. 
*/
void sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(Parse *pParse, Expr *p){
  if( pParse->nErr ) return;
  exprSetHeight(p);
  sqlite3ExprCheckHeight(pParse, p->nHeight);
}

/*
** Return the maximum height of any expression tree referenced
** by the select statement passed as an argument.
................................................................................
}
#else /* ABOVE:  Height enforcement enabled.  BELOW: Height enforcement off */
/*
** Propagate all EP_Propagate flags from the Expr.x.pList into
** Expr.flags. 
*/
void sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(Parse *pParse, Expr *p){
  if( p && p->x.pList && !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect) ){
    p->flags |= EP_Propagate & sqlite3ExprListFlags(p->x.pList);
  }
}
#define exprSetHeight(y)
#endif /* SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0 */

/*
................................................................................
){
  if( pRoot==0 ){
    assert( db->mallocFailed );
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pLeft);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pRight);
  }else{
    if( pRight ){

      pRoot->pRight = pRight;

      pRoot->flags |= EP_Propagate & pRight->flags;
    }
    if( pLeft ){
      pRoot->pLeft = pLeft;
      pRoot->flags |= EP_Propagate & pLeft->flags;
    }
    exprSetHeight(pRoot);
................................................................................
}

/*
** Add pSelect to the Expr.x.pSelect field.  Or, if pExpr is NULL (due
** do a memory allocation failure) then delete the pSelect object.
*/
void sqlite3PExprAddSelect(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, Select *pSelect){
  if( pExpr ){


    pExpr->x.pSelect = pSelect;
    ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect|EP_Subquery);
    sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, pExpr);
  }else{
    assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
    sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, pSelect);
  }
}


















/*
** If the expression is always either TRUE or FALSE (respectively),
** then return 1.  If one cannot determine the truth value of the
** expression at compile-time return 0.
**
................................................................................
  if( pNew==0 ){
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pList); /* Avoid memory leak when malloc fails */
    return 0;
  }
  if( pList && pList->nExpr > pParse->db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG] ){
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "too many arguments on function %T", pToken);
  }



  pNew->x.pList = pList;

  ExprSetProperty(pNew, EP_HasFunc);
  assert( !ExprHasProperty(pNew, EP_xIsSelect) );
  sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, pNew);
  if( eDistinct==SF_Distinct ) ExprSetProperty(pNew, EP_Distinct);
  return pNew;
}

/*
** Assign a variable number to an expression that encodes a wildcard
................................................................................
/*
** Recursively delete an expression tree.
*/
static SQLITE_NOINLINE void sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(sqlite3 *db, Expr *p){
  assert( p!=0 );
  /* Sanity check: Assert that the IntValue is non-negative if it exists */
  assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_IntValue) || p->u.iValue>=0 );


#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Leaf) && !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly) ){
    assert( p->pLeft==0 );






    assert( p->pRight==0 );
    assert( p->x.pSelect==0 );

  }
#endif
  if( !ExprHasProperty(p, (EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf)) ){
    /* The Expr.x union is never used at the same time as Expr.pRight */
    assert( p->x.pList==0 || p->pRight==0 );
    if( p->pLeft && p->op!=TK_SELECT_COLUMN ) sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(db, p->pLeft);
    if( p->pRight ){
      sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(db, p->pRight);
    }else if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect) ){


      sqlite3SelectDelete(db, p->x.pSelect);
    }else{



      sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->x.pList);






    }
    if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Reduced) ){
      sqlite3WindowDelete(db, p->pWin);
    }
  }
  if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_MemToken) ) sqlite3DbFree(db, p->u.zToken);
  if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Static) ){
    sqlite3DbFreeNN(db, p);
  }
}
void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3 *db, Expr *p){
  if( p ) sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(db, p);
}
























/*
** Return the number of bytes allocated for the expression structure 
** passed as the first argument. This is always one of EXPR_FULLSIZE,
** EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE or EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE.
*/
static int exprStructSize(Expr *p){
................................................................................
  ){
    nSize = EXPR_FULLSIZE;
  }else{
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_FromJoin) ); 
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_MemToken) );
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_NoReduce) );
    if( p->pLeft || p->x.pList ){
      nSize = EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE | EP_Reduced;
    }else{
      assert( p->pRight==0 );
      nSize = EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE | EP_TokenOnly;
    }
  }
  return nSize;
}

/*
................................................................................
** descended from the Expr.x.pList or Expr.x.pSelect variables).
*/
static int dupedExprSize(Expr *p, int flags){
  int nByte = 0;
  if( p ){
    nByte = dupedExprNodeSize(p, flags);
    if( flags&EXPRDUP_REDUCE ){
      nByte += dupedExprSize(p->pLeft, flags) + dupedExprSize(p->pRight, flags);

    }
  }
  return nByte;
}

/*
** This function is similar to sqlite3ExprDup(), except that if pzBuffer 
** is not NULL then *pzBuffer is assumed to point to a buffer large enough 
** to store the copy of expression p, the copies of p->u.zToken
** (if applicable), and the copies of the p->pLeft and p->pRight expressions,
** if any. Before returning, *pzBuffer is set to the first byte past the
** portion of the buffer copied into by this function.
*/
static Expr *exprDup(sqlite3 *db, Expr *p, int dupFlags, u8 **pzBuffer){
  Expr *pNew;           /* Value to return */
  u8 *zAlloc;           /* Memory space from which to build Expr object */
  u32 staticFlag;       /* EP_Static if space not obtained from malloc */
................................................................................
      }
    }

    /* Set the EP_Reduced, EP_TokenOnly, and EP_Static flags appropriately. */
    pNew->flags &= ~(EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly|EP_Static|EP_MemToken);
    pNew->flags |= nStructSize & (EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly);
    pNew->flags |= staticFlag;



    /* Copy the p->u.zToken string, if any. */
    if( nToken ){
      char *zToken = pNew->u.zToken = (char*)&zAlloc[nNewSize];
      memcpy(zToken, p->u.zToken, nToken);
    }

    if( 0==((p->flags|pNew->flags) & (EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf)) ){
      /* Fill in the pNew->x.pSelect or pNew->x.pList member. */
      if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect) ){


        pNew->x.pSelect = sqlite3SelectDup(db, p->x.pSelect, dupFlags);
      }else{





        pNew->x.pList = sqlite3ExprListDup(db, p->x.pList, dupFlags);



      }
    }

    /* Fill in pNew->pLeft and pNew->pRight. */
    if( ExprHasProperty(pNew, EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly) ){
      zAlloc += dupedExprNodeSize(p, dupFlags);
      if( !ExprHasProperty(pNew, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf) ){
        pNew->pLeft = p->pLeft ?
                      exprDup(db, p->pLeft, EXPRDUP_REDUCE, &zAlloc) : 0;
        pNew->pRight = p->pRight ?
                       exprDup(db, p->pRight, EXPRDUP_REDUCE, &zAlloc) : 0;

      }
      if( pzBuffer ){
        *pzBuffer = zAlloc;
      }
    }else{
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
      if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly) ){
................................................................................
      }else{
        pNew->pWin = sqlite3WindowDup(db, pNew, p->pWin);
      }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC */
      if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf) ){
        if( pNew->op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN ){
          pNew->pLeft = p->pLeft;
          assert( p->iColumn==0 || p->pRight==0 );
          assert( p->pRight==0  || p->pRight==p->pLeft );
        }else{
          pNew->pLeft = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pLeft, 0);
        }

        pNew->pRight = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pRight, 0);


      }
    }
  }
  return pNew;
}

/*
................................................................................
    pItem->pExpr = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOldExpr, flags);
    if( pOldExpr 
     && pOldExpr->op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN
     && (pNewExpr = pItem->pExpr)!=0 
    ){
      assert( pNewExpr->iColumn==0 || i>0 );
      if( pNewExpr->iColumn==0 ){
        assert( pOldExpr->pLeft==pOldExpr->pRight );
        pPriorSelectCol = pNewExpr->pLeft = pNewExpr->pRight;
      }else{
        assert( i>0 );
        assert( pItem[-1].pExpr!=0 );
        assert( pNewExpr->iColumn==pItem[-1].pExpr->iColumn+1 );
        assert( pPriorSelectCol==pItem[-1].pExpr->pLeft );
        pNewExpr->pLeft = pPriorSelectCol;
      }
................................................................................
  if( !db->mallocFailed && pExpr->op==TK_SELECT && ALWAYS(pList!=0) ){
    Expr *pFirst = pList->a[iFirst].pExpr;
    assert( pFirst!=0 );
    assert( pFirst->op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN );
     
    /* Store the SELECT statement in pRight so it will be deleted when
    ** sqlite3ExprListDelete() is called */

    pFirst->pRight = pExpr;

    pExpr = 0;

    /* Remember the size of the LHS in iTable so that we can check that
    ** the RHS and LHS sizes match during code generation. */
    pFirst->iTable = pColumns->nId;
  }

................................................................................
      if( sqlite3IsBinary(pColl) ){
        return WRC_Prune;
      }
    }
  }

  /* Check if pExpr is a sub-select. If so, consider it variable. */
  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
    pWalker->eCode = 0;
    return WRC_Abort;
  }

  return exprNodeIsConstant(pWalker, pExpr);
}

................................................................................
  switch( op ){
    case TK_INTEGER:
    case TK_STRING:
    case TK_FLOAT:
    case TK_BLOB:
      return 0;
    case TK_COLUMN:

      return ExprHasProperty(p, EP_CanBeNull) ||
             p->pTab==0 ||  /* Reference to column of index on expression */
             (p->iColumn>=0 && p->pTab->aCol[p->iColumn].notNull==0);
    default:
      return 1;
  }
}

/*
** Return TRUE if the given expression is a constant which would be
................................................................................
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
static Select *isCandidateForInOpt(Expr *pX){
  Select *p;
  SrcList *pSrc;
  ExprList *pEList;
  Table *pTab;
  int i;
  if( !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ) return 0;  /* Not a subquery */
  if( ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_VarSelect)  ) return 0;  /* Correlated subq */


  p = pX->x.pSelect;
  if( p->pPrior ) return 0;              /* Not a compound SELECT */
  if( p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate) ){
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Distinct );
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Aggregate );
    return 0; /* No DISTINCT keyword and no aggregate functions */
  }
................................................................................
/*
** The argument is an IN operator with a list (not a subquery) on the 
** right-hand side.  Return TRUE if that list is constant.
*/
static int sqlite3InRhsIsConstant(Expr *pIn){
  Expr *pLHS;
  int res;
  assert( !ExprHasProperty(pIn, EP_xIsSelect) );
  pLHS = pIn->pLeft;
  pIn->pLeft = 0;
  res = sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pIn);
  pIn->pLeft = pLHS;
  return res;
}
#endif
................................................................................
  mustBeUnique = (inFlags & IN_INDEX_LOOP)!=0;

  /* If the RHS of this IN(...) operator is a SELECT, and if it matters 
  ** whether or not the SELECT result contains NULL values, check whether
  ** or not NULL is actually possible (it may not be, for example, due 
  ** to NOT NULL constraints in the schema). If no NULL values are possible,
  ** set prRhsHasNull to 0 before continuing.  */
  if( prRhsHasNull && (pX->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
    int i;
    ExprList *pEList = pX->x.pSelect->pEList;
    for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
      if( sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pEList->a[i].pExpr) ) break;
    }
    if( i==pEList->nExpr ){
      prRhsHasNull = 0;
................................................................................
            }
          }
  
          colUsed = 0;   /* Columns of index used so far */
          for(i=0; i<nExpr; i++){
            Expr *pLhs = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pX->pLeft, i);
            Expr *pRhs = pEList->a[i].pExpr;
            CollSeq *pReq = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pLhs, pRhs);
            int j;
  
            assert( pReq!=0 || pRhs->iColumn==XN_ROWID || pParse->nErr );
            for(j=0; j<nExpr; j++){
              if( pIdx->aiColumn[j]!=pRhs->iColumn ) continue;
              assert( pIdx->azColl[j] );
              if( pReq!=0 && sqlite3StrICmp(pReq->zName, pIdx->azColl[j])!=0 ){
................................................................................
  ** and IN_INDEX_NOOP is an allowed reply
  ** and the RHS of the IN operator is a list, not a subquery
  ** and the RHS is not constant or has two or fewer terms,
  ** then it is not worth creating an ephemeral table to evaluate
  ** the IN operator so return IN_INDEX_NOOP.
  */
  if( eType==0
   && (inFlags & IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK)
   && !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect)
   && (!sqlite3InRhsIsConstant(pX) || pX->x.pList->nExpr<=2)
  ){
    eType = IN_INDEX_NOOP;
  }

  if( eType==0 ){
    /* Could not find an existing table or index to use as the RHS b-tree.
................................................................................
    ** We will have to generate an ephemeral table to do the job.
    */
    u32 savedNQueryLoop = pParse->nQueryLoop;
    int rMayHaveNull = 0;
    eType = IN_INDEX_EPH;
    if( inFlags & IN_INDEX_LOOP ){
      pParse->nQueryLoop = 0;
      if( pX->pLeft->iColumn<0 && !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;
      }
    }else if( prRhsHasNull ){
      *prRhsHasNull = rMayHaveNull = ++pParse->nMem;
    }
    sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pX, rMayHaveNull, eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID);
    pParse->nQueryLoop = savedNQueryLoop;
................................................................................
**
** It is the responsibility of the caller to ensure that the returned
** string is eventually freed using sqlite3DbFree().
*/
static char *exprINAffinity(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
  int nVal = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
  Select *pSelect = (pExpr->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ? pExpr->x.pSelect : 0;
  char *zRet;

  assert( pExpr->op==TK_IN );
  zRet = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(pParse->db, nVal+1);
  if( zRet ){
    int i;
    for(i=0; i<nVal; i++){
................................................................................
**
** Or, if it is a regular scalar vector:
**
**   "row value misused"
*/   
void sqlite3VectorErrorMsg(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  if( pExpr->flags & EP_xIsSelect ){
    sqlite3SubselectError(pParse, pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr, 1);
  }else
#endif
  {
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
  }
}
................................................................................
      ** is used.
      */
      pExpr->iTable = pParse->nTab++;
      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, 
          pExpr->iTable, (isRowid?0:nVal));
      pKeyInfo = isRowid ? 0 : sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, nVal, 1);

      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){

        /* Case 1:     expr IN (SELECT ...)
        **
        ** Generate code to write the results of the select into the temporary
        ** table allocated and opened above.
        */
        Select *pSelect = pExpr->x.pSelect;
        ExprList *pEList = pSelect->pEList;
................................................................................
          sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, dest.zAffSdst);
          assert( pKeyInfo!=0 ); /* OOM will cause exit after sqlite3Select() */
          assert( pEList!=0 );
          assert( pEList->nExpr>0 );
          assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
          for(i=0; i<nVal; i++){
            Expr *p = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pLeft, i);
            pKeyInfo->aColl[i] = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(
                pParse, p, pEList->a[i].pExpr
            );
          }
        }
      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList!=0) ){
        /* Case 2:     expr IN (exprlist)
        **
................................................................................
      SelectDest dest;                      /* How to deal with SELECT result */
      int nReg;                             /* Registers to allocate */
      Expr *pLimit;                         /* New limit expression */

      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );

      pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
      ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "%sSCALAR SUBQUERY",
            jmpIfDynamic>=0?"":"CORRELATED "));
      nReg = pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ? pSel->pEList->nExpr : 1;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, 0, pParse->nMem+1);
      pParse->nMem += nReg;
................................................................................
** Expr pIn is an IN(...) expression. This function checks that the 
** sub-select on the RHS of the IN() operator has the same number of 
** columns as the vector on the LHS. Or, if the RHS of the IN() is not 
** a sub-query, that the LHS is a vector of size 1.
*/
int sqlite3ExprCheckIN(Parse *pParse, Expr *pIn){
  int nVector = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pIn->pLeft);
  if( (pIn->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
    if( nVector!=pIn->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr ){
      sqlite3SubselectError(pParse, pIn->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr, nVector);
      return 1;
    }
  }else if( nVector!=1 ){
    sqlite3VectorErrorMsg(pParse, pIn->pLeft);
    return 1;
................................................................................
  if( eType==IN_INDEX_NOOP ){
    ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
    CollSeq *pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
    int labelOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
    int r2, regToFree;
    int regCkNull = 0;
    int ii;
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
    if( destIfNull!=destIfFalse ){
      regCkNull = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_BitAnd, rLhs, rLhs, regCkNull);
    }
    for(ii=0; ii<pList->nExpr; ii++){
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pList->a[ii].pExpr, &regToFree);
      if( regCkNull && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pList->a[ii].pExpr) ){
................................................................................
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FixedCol) ){
        /* This COLUMN expression is really a constant due to WHERE clause
        ** constraints, and that constant is coded by the pExpr->pLeft
        ** expresssion.  However, make sure the constant has the correct
        ** datatype by applying the Affinity of the table column to the
        ** constant.
        */

        int iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft,target);

        int aff = sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pExpr->pTab, pExpr->iColumn);
        if( aff!=SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
          static const char zAff[] = "B\000C\000D\000E";
          assert( SQLITE_AFF_BLOB=='A' );
          assert( SQLITE_AFF_TEXT=='B' );
          if( iReg!=target ){
            sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, iReg, target);
            iReg = target;
................................................................................
          return pExpr->iColumn - pParse->iSelfTab;
        }else{
          /* Coding an expression that is part of an index where column names
          ** in the index refer to the table to which the index belongs */
          iTab = pParse->iSelfTab - 1;
        }
      }

      return sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(pParse, pExpr->pTab,
                               pExpr->iColumn, iTab, target,
                               pExpr->op2);
    }
    case TK_INTEGER: {
      codeInteger(pParse, pExpr, 0, target);
      return target;
    }
................................................................................
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pLeft) ){
        codeVectorCompare(pParse, pExpr, target, op, p5);
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pLeft, &regFree1);

        r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
        codeCompare(pParse, pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
            r1, r2, inReg, SQLITE_STOREP2 | p5);
        assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
        assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
        assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
        assert(TK_GE==OP_Ge); testcase(op==OP_Ge); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ge);
        assert(TK_EQ==OP_Eq); testcase(op==OP_Eq); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Eq);
        assert(TK_NE==OP_Ne); testcase(op==OP_Ne); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ne);
................................................................................
      assert( TK_BITAND==OP_BitAnd );      testcase( op==TK_BITAND );
      assert( TK_BITOR==OP_BitOr );        testcase( op==TK_BITOR );
      assert( TK_SLASH==OP_Divide );       testcase( op==TK_SLASH );
      assert( TK_LSHIFT==OP_ShiftLeft );   testcase( op==TK_LSHIFT );
      assert( TK_RSHIFT==OP_ShiftRight );  testcase( op==TK_RSHIFT );
      assert( TK_CONCAT==OP_Concat );      testcase( op==TK_CONCAT );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);

      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, op, r2, r1, target);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      testcase( regFree2==0 );
      break;
    }
    case TK_UMINUS: {
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
................................................................................
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
      }else if( pLeft->op==TK_FLOAT ){
        assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
        codeReal(v, pLeft->u.zToken, 1, target);
        return target;
#endif
      }else{

        tempX.op = TK_INTEGER;
        tempX.flags = EP_IntValue|EP_TokenOnly;
        tempX.u.iValue = 0;
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, &tempX, &regFree1);
        r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree2);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Subtract, r2, r1, target);
        testcase( regFree2==0 );
................................................................................
      break;
    }
    case TK_TRUTH: {
      int isTrue;    /* IS TRUE or IS NOT TRUE */
      int bNormal;   /* IS TRUE or IS FALSE */
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );

      isTrue = sqlite3ExprTruthValue(pExpr->pRight);
      bNormal = pExpr->op2==TK_IS;
      testcase( isTrue && bNormal);
      testcase( !isTrue && bNormal);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IsTrue, r1, inReg, !isTrue, isTrue ^ bNormal);
      break;
    }
    case TK_ISNULL:
................................................................................
#endif

      if( ConstFactorOk(pParse) && sqlite3ExprIsConstantNotJoin(pExpr) ){
        /* SQL functions can be expensive. So try to move constant functions
        ** out of the inner loop, even if that means an extra OP_Copy. */
        return sqlite3ExprCodeAtInit(pParse, pExpr, -1);
      }
      assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly) ){
        pFarg = 0;
      }else{
        pFarg = pExpr->x.pList;
      }
      nFarg = pFarg ? pFarg->nExpr : 0;
      assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
................................................................................
      **
      ** Then p1 is interpreted as follows:
      **
      **   p1==0   ->    old.rowid     p1==3   ->    new.rowid
      **   p1==1   ->    old.a         p1==4   ->    new.a
      **   p1==2   ->    old.b         p1==5   ->    new.b       
      */


      Table *pTab = pExpr->pTab;
      int p1 = pExpr->iTable * (pTab->nCol+1) + 1 + pExpr->iColumn;

      assert( pExpr->iTable==0 || pExpr->iTable==1 );
      assert( pExpr->iColumn>=-1 && pExpr->iColumn<pTab->nCol );
      assert( pTab->iPKey<0 || pExpr->iColumn!=pTab->iPKey );
      assert( p1>=0 && p1<(pTab->nCol*2+2) );

      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Param, p1, target);

      VdbeComment((v, "r[%d]=%s.%s", target,
        (pExpr->iTable ? "new" : "old"),
        (pExpr->iColumn<0 ? "rowid" : pExpr->pTab->aCol[pExpr->iColumn].zName)
      ));

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
      /* If the column has REAL affinity, it may currently be stored as an
      ** integer. Use OP_RealAffinity to make sure it is really real.
      **
      ** EVIDENCE-OF: R-60985-57662 SQLite will convert the value back to
................................................................................
      int i;                            /* Loop counter */
      ExprList *pEList;                 /* List of WHEN terms */
      struct ExprList_item *aListelem;  /* Array of WHEN terms */
      Expr opCompare;                   /* The X==Ei expression */
      Expr *pX;                         /* The X expression */
      Expr *pTest = 0;                  /* X==Ei (form A) or just Ei (form B) */

      assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) && pExpr->x.pList );
      assert(pExpr->x.pList->nExpr > 0);
      pEList = pExpr->x.pList;
      aListelem = pEList->a;
      nExpr = pEList->nExpr;
      endLabel = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      if( (pX = pExpr->pLeft)!=0 ){
        tempX = *pX;
        testcase( pX->op==TK_COLUMN );
................................................................................
        ** So make sure that the regFree1 register is not reused for other
        ** purposes and possibly overwritten.  */
        regFree1 = 0;
      }
      for(i=0; i<nExpr-1; i=i+2){
        if( pX ){
          assert( pTest!=0 );
          opCompare.pRight = aListelem[i].pExpr;

        }else{
          pTest = aListelem[i].pExpr;
        }
        nextCase = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
        testcase( pTest->op==TK_COLUMN );
        sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pTest, nextCase, SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
        testcase( aListelem[i+1].pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN );
................................................................................
  int regFree1 = 0; /* Temporary use register */


  memset(&compLeft, 0, sizeof(Expr));
  memset(&compRight, 0, sizeof(Expr));
  memset(&exprAnd, 0, sizeof(Expr));

  assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
  exprX = *pExpr->pLeft;
  exprAnd.op = TK_AND;
  exprAnd.pLeft = &compLeft;
  exprAnd.pRight = &compRight;

  compLeft.op = TK_GE;
  compLeft.pLeft = &exprX;
  compLeft.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;

  compRight.op = TK_LE;
  compRight.pLeft = &exprX;
  compRight.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr;

  exprToRegister(&exprX, exprCodeVector(pParse, &exprX, &regFree1));
  if( xJump ){
    xJump(pParse, &exprAnd, dest, jumpIfNull);
  }else{
    /* Mark the expression is being from the ON or USING clause of a join
    ** so that the sqlite3ExprCodeTarget() routine will not attempt to move
    ** it into the Parse.pConstExpr list.  We should use a new bit for this,
................................................................................
  if( NEVER(pExpr==0) ) return;  /* No way this can happen */
  op = pExpr->op;
  switch( op ){
    case TK_AND: {
      int d2 = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, d2,jumpIfNull^SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);

      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pRight, dest, jumpIfNull);
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, d2);
      break;
    }
    case TK_OR: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest, jumpIfNull);

      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pRight, dest, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
    case TK_NOT: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
    case TK_TRUTH: {
      int isNot;      /* IS NOT TRUE or IS NOT FALSE */
      int isTrue;     /* IS TRUE or IS NOT TRUE */
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      isNot = pExpr->op2==TK_ISNOT;

      isTrue = sqlite3ExprTruthValue(pExpr->pRight);
      testcase( isTrue && isNot );
      testcase( !isTrue && isNot );
      if( isTrue ^ isNot ){
        sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest,
                          isNot ? SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL : 0);
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest,
................................................................................
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pExpr->pLeft) ) goto default_expr;
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);

      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
      assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
      assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
      assert(TK_GE==OP_Ge); testcase(op==OP_Ge); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ge);
      assert(TK_EQ==OP_Eq); testcase(op==OP_Eq);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_Eq && jumpIfNull==SQLITE_NULLEQ);
................................................................................
  assert( pExpr->op!=TK_GT || op==OP_Le );
  assert( pExpr->op!=TK_GE || op==OP_Lt );

  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_AND: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest, jumpIfNull);

      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pRight, dest, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
    case TK_OR: {
      int d2 = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, d2, jumpIfNull^SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);

      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pRight, dest, jumpIfNull);
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, d2);
      break;
    }
    case TK_NOT: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
    case TK_TRUTH: {
      int isNot;   /* IS NOT TRUE or IS NOT FALSE */
      int isTrue;  /* IS TRUE or IS NOT TRUE */
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      isNot = pExpr->op2==TK_ISNOT;

      isTrue = sqlite3ExprTruthValue(pExpr->pRight);
      testcase( isTrue && isNot );
      testcase( !isTrue && isNot );
      if( isTrue ^ isNot ){
        /* IS TRUE and IS NOT FALSE */
        sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest,
                           isNot ? 0 : SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);

................................................................................
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pExpr->pLeft) ) goto default_expr;
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);

      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
      assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
      assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
      assert(TK_GE==OP_Ge); testcase(op==OP_Ge); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ge);
      assert(TK_EQ==OP_Eq); testcase(op==OP_Eq);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_Eq && jumpIfNull!=SQLITE_NULLEQ);
................................................................................
      if( sqlite3_stricmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ) return 2;
    }else if( strcmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ){
      return 2;
    }
  }
  if( (pA->flags & EP_Distinct)!=(pB->flags & EP_Distinct) ) return 2;
  if( ALWAYS((combinedFlags & EP_TokenOnly)==0) ){
    if( combinedFlags & EP_xIsSelect ) return 2;
    if( (combinedFlags & EP_FixedCol)==0
     && sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pA->pLeft, pB->pLeft, iTab) ) return 2;

    if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pA->pRight, pB->pRight, iTab) ) return 2;


    if( sqlite3ExprListCompare(pA->x.pList, pB->x.pList, iTab) ) return 2;

    assert( (combinedFlags & EP_Reduced)==0 );
    if( pA->op!=TK_STRING && pA->op!=TK_TRUEFALSE ){
      if( pA->iColumn!=pB->iColumn ) return 2;
      if( pA->iTable!=pB->iTable 
       && (pA->iTable!=iTab || NEVER(pB->iTable>=0)) ) return 2;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
................................................................................
** improvement.  Returning false might cause a performance reduction, but
** it will always give the correct answer and is hence always safe.
*/
int sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(Parse *pParse, Expr *pE1, Expr *pE2, int iTab){
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pE1, pE2, iTab)==0 ){
    return 1;
  }

  if( pE2->op==TK_OR
   && (sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(pParse, pE1, pE2->pLeft, iTab)
             || sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(pParse, pE1, pE2->pRight, iTab) )
  ){
    return 1;
  }
  if( pE2->op==TK_NOTNULL && pE1->op!=TK_ISNULL && pE1->op!=TK_IS ){
    Expr *pX = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pE1->pLeft);
    testcase( pX!=pE1->pLeft );
    if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pX, pE2->pLeft, iTab)==0 ) return 1;
................................................................................
    case TK_GE:
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EQ );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_NE );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LT );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LE );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_GT );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_GE );

      if( (pExpr->pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN && IsVirtual(pExpr->pLeft->pTab))
       || (pExpr->pRight->op==TK_COLUMN && IsVirtual(pExpr->pRight->pTab))
      ){
       return WRC_Prune;
      }
    default:
      return WRC_Continue;
  }
}
................................................................................
                break;
              }
            }
            if( (k>=pAggInfo->nColumn)
             && (k = addAggInfoColumn(pParse->db, pAggInfo))>=0 
            ){
              pCol = &pAggInfo->aCol[k];

              pCol->pTab = pExpr->pTab;
              pCol->iTable = pExpr->iTable;
              pCol->iColumn = pExpr->iColumn;
              pCol->iMem = ++pParse->nMem;
              pCol->iSorterColumn = -1;
              pCol->pExpr = pExpr;
              if( pAggInfo->pGroupBy ){
                int j, n;
................................................................................
        }
        if( i>=pAggInfo->nFunc ){
          /* pExpr is original.  Make a new entry in pAggInfo->aFunc[]
          */
          u8 enc = ENC(pParse->db);
          i = addAggInfoFunc(pParse->db, pAggInfo);
          if( i>=0 ){
            assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
            pItem = &pAggInfo->aFunc[i];
            pItem->pExpr = pExpr;
            pItem->iMem = ++pParse->nMem;
            assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
            pItem->pFunc = sqlite3FindFunction(pParse->db,
                   pExpr->u.zToken, 
                   pExpr->x.pList ? pExpr->x.pList->nExpr : 0, enc, 0);
            if( pExpr->flags & EP_Distinct ){
              pItem->iDistinct = pParse->nTab++;
            }else{
              pItem->iDistinct = -1;
            }
          }
        }







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1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
....
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229

1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
....
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
....
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345

1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
....
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
....
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
....
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
....
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
....
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
....
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
....
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
....
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
....
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
....
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
....
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
....
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
....
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
....
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
....
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
....
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
....
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
....
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
....
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
....
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
....
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
....
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
....
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
....
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
....
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
....
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
....
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
....
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
....
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402
4403
....
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458
4459
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482
4483
....
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513
....
4616
4617
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627
4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
....
4671
4672
4673
4674
4675
4676
4677
4678
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
....
4849
4850
4851
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856
4857
4858
4859
4860
4861
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866
4867
4868
4869
4870
4871
....
4952
4953
4954
4955
4956
4957
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4963
4964
4965
4966
4967
4968
4969
....
5023
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039
....
5256
5257
5258
5259
5260
5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
....
5315
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333
5334
5335
5336
*/
char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr){
  int op;
  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);
  if( pExpr->flags & EP_Generic ) return 0;
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_SELECT ){
    assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Select );
    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr);
  }
  if( op==TK_REGISTER ) op = pExpr->op2;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
  if( op==TK_CAST ){
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
    return sqlite3AffinityType(pExpr->u.zToken, 0);
  }
#endif
  if( (op==TK_AGG_COLUMN || op==TK_COLUMN)
   && ALWAYS(pExpr->eX==EX_Tab) && pExpr->x.pTab ){
    return sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pExpr->x.pTab, pExpr->iColumn);
  }
  if( op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN ){
    assert( pExpr->pLeft->eX==EX_Select );
    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(
        pExpr->pLeft->x.pSelect->pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr
    );
  }
  return pExpr->affinity;
}

................................................................................
/*
** Skip over any TK_COLLATE operators and any unlikely()
** or likelihood() function at the root of an expression.
*/
Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(Expr *pExpr){
  while( pExpr && ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Skip) ){
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Unlikely) ){
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_List );
      assert( pExpr->x.pList->nExpr>0 );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_FUNCTION );
      pExpr = pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;
    }else{
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE );
      pExpr = pExpr->pLeft;
    }
................................................................................
  CollSeq *pColl = 0;
  Expr *p = pExpr;
  while( p ){
    int op = p->op;
    if( p->flags & EP_Generic ) break;
    if( (op==TK_AGG_COLUMN || op==TK_COLUMN
          || op==TK_REGISTER || op==TK_TRIGGER)
     && p->eX==EX_Tab
     && p->x.pTab!=0
    ){
      /* op==TK_REGISTER && p->pTab!=0 happens when pExpr was originally
      ** a TK_COLUMN but was previously evaluated and cached in a register */
      int j = p->iColumn;
      if( j>=0 ){
        const char *zColl = p->x.pTab->aCol[j].zColl;
        pColl = sqlite3FindCollSeq(db, ENC(db), zColl, 0);
      }
      break;
    }
    if( op==TK_CAST || op==TK_UPLUS ){
      p = p->pLeft;
      continue;
................................................................................
      pColl = sqlite3GetCollSeq(pParse, ENC(db), 0, p->u.zToken);
      break;
    }
    if( p->flags & EP_Collate ){
      if( p->pLeft && (p->pLeft->flags & EP_Collate)!=0 ){
        p = p->pLeft;
      }else{
        Expr *pNext = 0;


        /* p->flags holds EP_Collate and p->pLeft->flags does not.  And
        ** p->x.pSelect cannot.  So if p->x.pLeft exists, it must hold at
        ** least one EP_Collate. Thus the following two ALWAYS. */
        if( p->eX==EX_List ){
          int i;
          for(i=0; ALWAYS(i<p->x.pList->nExpr); i++){
            if( ExprHasProperty(p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, EP_Collate) ){
              pNext = p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;
              break;
            }
          }
        }else if( p->eX==EX_Right ){
          pNext = p->x.pRight;
        }
        p = pNext;
      }
    }else{
      break;
    }
  }
................................................................................
static char comparisonAffinity(Expr *pExpr){
  char aff;
  assert( pExpr->op==TK_EQ || pExpr->op==TK_IN || pExpr->op==TK_LT ||
          pExpr->op==TK_GT || pExpr->op==TK_GE || pExpr->op==TK_LE ||
          pExpr->op==TK_NE || pExpr->op==TK_IS || pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT );
  assert( pExpr->pLeft );
  aff = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->pLeft);
  if( pExpr->eX==EX_Right ){
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pExpr->x.pRight, aff);
  }else if( pExpr->eX==EX_Select ){
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr, aff);
  }else if( aff==0 ){
    aff = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
  }
  return aff;
}

................................................................................
** If the left hand expression has a collating sequence type, then it is
** used. Otherwise the collation sequence for the right hand expression
** is used, or the default (BINARY) if neither expression has a collating
** type.
**
** Argument pRight (but not pLeft) may be a null pointer. In this case,
** it is not considered.
**
** The second form (sqlite3BinaryExprCollSeq()) uses the Expr.pLeft
** and Expr.x.pRight pointer from the second argument instead of separate
** pointers.
*/
CollSeq *sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(
  Parse *pParse, 
  Expr *pLeft, 
  Expr *pRight
){
  CollSeq *pColl;
  assert( pLeft );
  if( pLeft->flags & EP_Collate ){
................................................................................
    pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pLeft);
    if( !pColl ){
      pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pRight);
    }
  }
  return pColl;
}
CollSeq *sqlite3ComparisonExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  if( pExpr->eX==EX_Right ){
    return sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->x.pRight);
  }else{
    return sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
  }
}

/*
** Generate code for a comparison operator.
*/
static int codeCompare(
  Parse *pParse,    /* The parsing (and code generating) context */
  Expr *pLeft,      /* The left operand */
................................................................................
  int dest,         /* Jump here if true.  */
  int jumpIfNull    /* If true, jump if either operand is NULL */
){
  int p5;
  int addr;
  CollSeq *p4;

  p4 = sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(pParse, pLeft, pRight);
  p5 = binaryCompareP5(pLeft, pRight, jumpIfNull);
  addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(pParse->pVdbe, opcode, in2, dest, in1,
                           (void*)p4, P4_COLLSEQ);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(pParse->pVdbe, (u8)p5);
  return addr;
}

................................................................................
Expr *sqlite3ExprForVectorField(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pVector,       /* The vector.  List of expressions or a sub-SELECT */
  int iField           /* Which column of the vector to return */
){
  Expr *pRet;
  if( pVector->op==TK_SELECT ){
    assert( pVector->eX==EX_Select );
    /* The TK_SELECT_COLUMN Expr node:
    **
    ** pLeft:           pVector containing TK_SELECT.  Not deleted.
    ** pRight:          not used.  But recursively deleted.
    ** iColumn:         Index of a column in pVector
    ** iTable:          0 or the number of columns on the LHS of an assignment
    ** pLeft->iTable:   First in an array of register holding result, or 0
................................................................................
  Expr *pExpr,          /* The comparison operation */
  int dest,             /* Write results into this register */
  u8 op,                /* Comparison operator */
  u8 p5                 /* SQLITE_NULLEQ or zero */
){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
  Expr *pRight = pExpr->x.pRight;
  int nLeft = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
  int i;
  int regLeft = 0;
  int regRight = 0;
  u8 opx = op;
  int addrDone = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);

................................................................................
**
** Also propagate EP_Propagate flags up from Expr.x.pList to Expr.flags,
** if appropriate.
*/
static void exprSetHeight(Expr *p){
  int nHeight = 0;
  heightOfExpr(p->pLeft, &nHeight);
  switch( p->eX ){
    case EX_Select: {
      heightOfSelect(p->x.pSelect, &nHeight);
      break;
    }
    case EX_List: {
      heightOfExprList(p->x.pList, &nHeight);
      p->flags |= EP_Propagate & sqlite3ExprListFlags(p->x.pList);
      break;
    }
    case EX_Right: {
      heightOfExpr(p->x.pRight, &nHeight);
      break;
    }
  }
  p->nHeight = nHeight + 1;
}

/*
** Set the Expr.nHeight variable using the exprSetHeight() function. If
** the height is greater than the maximum allowed expression depth,
** leave an error in pParse.
**
** Also propagate all EP_Propagate flags from the Expr.x.pList into
** Expr.flags. 
*/
void sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(Parse *pParse, Expr *p){
  if( p==0 || pParse->nErr ) return;
  exprSetHeight(p);
  sqlite3ExprCheckHeight(pParse, p->nHeight);
}

/*
** Return the maximum height of any expression tree referenced
** by the select statement passed as an argument.
................................................................................
}
#else /* ABOVE:  Height enforcement enabled.  BELOW: Height enforcement off */
/*
** Propagate all EP_Propagate flags from the Expr.x.pList into
** Expr.flags. 
*/
void sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(Parse *pParse, Expr *p){
  if( p && p->eX==EX_List ){
    p->flags |= EP_Propagate & sqlite3ExprListFlags(p->x.pList);
  }
}
#define exprSetHeight(y)
#endif /* SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0 */

/*
................................................................................
){
  if( pRoot==0 ){
    assert( db->mallocFailed );
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pLeft);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pRight);
  }else{
    if( pRight ){
      assert( pRoot->eX==EX_None );
      pRoot->x.pRight = pRight;
      pRoot->eX = EX_Right;
      pRoot->flags |= EP_Propagate & pRight->flags;
    }
    if( pLeft ){
      pRoot->pLeft = pLeft;
      pRoot->flags |= EP_Propagate & pLeft->flags;
    }
    exprSetHeight(pRoot);
................................................................................
}

/*
** Add pSelect to the Expr.x.pSelect field.  Or, if pExpr is NULL (due
** do a memory allocation failure) then delete the pSelect object.
*/
void sqlite3PExprAddSelect(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, Select *pSelect){
  if( pExpr && pSelect ){
    assert( pExpr->eX==EX_None );
    pExpr->eX = EX_Select;
    pExpr->x.pSelect = pSelect;
    ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Subquery);
    sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, pExpr);
  }else{
    assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
    sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, pSelect);
  }
}

/*
** Add ExprList to the Expr.x.pList field.  Or, if pExpr is NULL (due
** do a memory allocation failure) then delete the pSelect object.
*/
void sqlite3PExprAddExprList(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, ExprList *pList){
  if( pExpr && pList ){
    assert( pExpr->eX==EX_None );
    pExpr->eX = EX_List;
    pExpr->x.pList = pList;
    /* sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, pExpr); // done by caller */
  }else{
    assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  }
}


/*
** If the expression is always either TRUE or FALSE (respectively),
** then return 1.  If one cannot determine the truth value of the
** expression at compile-time return 0.
**
................................................................................
  if( pNew==0 ){
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pList); /* Avoid memory leak when malloc fails */
    return 0;
  }
  if( pList && pList->nExpr > pParse->db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG] ){
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "too many arguments on function %T", pToken);
  }
  assert( pNew->eX==EX_None );
  if( pList ){
    pNew->eX = EX_List;
    pNew->x.pList = pList;
  }
  ExprSetProperty(pNew, EP_HasFunc);

  sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, pNew);
  if( eDistinct==SF_Distinct ) ExprSetProperty(pNew, EP_Distinct);
  return pNew;
}

/*
** Assign a variable number to an expression that encodes a wildcard
................................................................................
/*
** Recursively delete an expression tree.
*/
static SQLITE_NOINLINE void sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(sqlite3 *db, Expr *p){
  assert( p!=0 );
  /* Sanity check: Assert that the IntValue is non-negative if it exists */
  assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_IntValue) || p->u.iValue>=0 );
  assert( p->eX!=EX_Select || p->x.pSelect!=0 );
  assert( p->eX!=EX_List || p->x.pList!=0 );
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Leaf) && !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly) ){
    assert( p->pLeft==0 );
    assert( p->eX==EX_None || p->eX==EX_Tab );
  }
  if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly) ){
    assert( p->op!=TK_FUNCTION || p->pLeft==0 );
  }
  if( !ExprHasProperty(p, (EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced)) ){
    assert( p->pWin==0 || p->pLeft==0 );

    assert( p->pWin==0 || p->op==TK_FUNCTION );
  }
#endif
  if( !ExprHasProperty(p, (EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf)) ){


    if( p->pLeft && p->op!=TK_SELECT_COLUMN ) sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(db, p->pLeft);



    switch( p->eX ){
      case EX_Select: {
        sqlite3SelectDelete(db, p->x.pSelect);

        break;
      }
      case EX_List: {
        sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->x.pList);
        break;
      }
      case EX_Right: {
        sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->x.pRight);
        break;
      }
    }
    if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Reduced) ){
      sqlite3WindowDelete(db, p->pWin);
    }
  }
  if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_MemToken) ) sqlite3DbFree(db, p->u.zToken);
  if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Static) ){
    sqlite3DbFreeNN(db, p);
  }
}
void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3 *db, Expr *p){
  if( p ) sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(db, p);
}

void sqlite3ExprClearXUnion(sqlite3 *db, Expr *p){
  switch( p->eX ){
    case EX_Select: {
      sqlite3SelectDelete(db, p->x.pSelect);
      break;
    }
    case EX_List: {
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->x.pList);
      break;
    }
    case EX_Right: {
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->x.pRight);
      break;
    }
  }
  p->eX = EX_None;
}
void sqlite3ExprAddTab(sqlite3 *db, Expr *pExpr, Table *pTab){
  sqlite3ExprClearXUnion(db, pExpr);
  pExpr->eX = EX_Tab;
  pExpr->x.pTab = pTab;
}

/*
** Return the number of bytes allocated for the expression structure 
** passed as the first argument. This is always one of EXPR_FULLSIZE,
** EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE or EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE.
*/
static int exprStructSize(Expr *p){
................................................................................
  ){
    nSize = EXPR_FULLSIZE;
  }else{
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_FromJoin) ); 
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_MemToken) );
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_NoReduce) );
    if( p->pLeft || p->eX!=EX_None ){
      nSize = EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE | EP_Reduced;
    }else{

      nSize = EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE | EP_TokenOnly;
    }
  }
  return nSize;
}

/*
................................................................................
** descended from the Expr.x.pList or Expr.x.pSelect variables).
*/
static int dupedExprSize(Expr *p, int flags){
  int nByte = 0;
  if( p ){
    nByte = dupedExprNodeSize(p, flags);
    if( flags&EXPRDUP_REDUCE ){
      nByte += dupedExprSize(p->pLeft, flags);
      if( p->eX==EX_Right ) nByte += dupedExprSize(p->x.pRight, flags);
    }
  }
  return nByte;
}

/*
** This function is similar to sqlite3ExprDup(), except that if pzBuffer 
** is not NULL then *pzBuffer is assumed to point to a buffer large enough 
** to store the copy of expression p, the copies of p->u.zToken
** (if applicable), and the copies of the p->pLeft and p->x.pRight expressions,
** if any. Before returning, *pzBuffer is set to the first byte past the
** portion of the buffer copied into by this function.
*/
static Expr *exprDup(sqlite3 *db, Expr *p, int dupFlags, u8 **pzBuffer){
  Expr *pNew;           /* Value to return */
  u8 *zAlloc;           /* Memory space from which to build Expr object */
  u32 staticFlag;       /* EP_Static if space not obtained from malloc */
................................................................................
      }
    }

    /* Set the EP_Reduced, EP_TokenOnly, and EP_Static flags appropriately. */
    pNew->flags &= ~(EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly|EP_Static|EP_MemToken);
    pNew->flags |= nStructSize & (EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly);
    pNew->flags |= staticFlag;
    assert( pNew->eX==p->eX );
    assert( pNew->eV==p->eV );

    /* Copy the p->u.zToken string, if any. */
    if( nToken ){
      char *zToken = pNew->u.zToken = (char*)&zAlloc[nNewSize];
      memcpy(zToken, p->u.zToken, nToken);
    }

    if( 0==((p->flags|pNew->flags) & (EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf)) ){
      /* Fill in the pNew->x.pSelect or pNew->x.pList member. */
      switch( p->eX ){
        case EX_Select: {
          assert( pNew->eX==EX_Select );
          pNew->x.pSelect = sqlite3SelectDup(db, p->x.pSelect, dupFlags);

          if( pNew->x.pSelect==0 ) pNew->eX = EX_None;
          break;
        }
        case EX_List: {
          assert( pNew->eX==EX_List );
          pNew->x.pList = sqlite3ExprListDup(db, p->x.pList, dupFlags);
          if( pNew->x.pList==0 ) pNew->eX = EX_None;
          break;
        }
      }
    }

    /* Fill in pNew->pLeft and pNew->x.pRight. */
    if( ExprHasProperty(pNew, EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly) ){
      zAlloc += dupedExprNodeSize(p, dupFlags);
      if( !ExprHasProperty(pNew, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf) ){
        pNew->pLeft = p->pLeft ?
                      exprDup(db, p->pLeft, EXPRDUP_REDUCE, &zAlloc) : 0;
        if( p->eX==EX_Right ){
          pNew->x.pRight = exprDup(db, p->x.pRight, EXPRDUP_REDUCE, &zAlloc);
        }
      }
      if( pzBuffer ){
        *pzBuffer = zAlloc;
      }
    }else{
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
      if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly) ){
................................................................................
      }else{
        pNew->pWin = sqlite3WindowDup(db, pNew, p->pWin);
      }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC */
      if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf) ){
        if( pNew->op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN ){
          pNew->pLeft = p->pLeft;
          assert( p->iColumn==0 || p->eX!=EX_Right );
          /* OLD: assert( p->pRight==0  || p->x.pRight==p->pLeft ); */
        }else{
          pNew->pLeft = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pLeft, 0);
        }
        if( p->eX==EX_Right ){
          pNew->x.pRight = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->x.pRight, 0);
          if( pNew->x.pRight==0 ) pNew->eX = EX_None;
        }
      }
    }
  }
  return pNew;
}

/*
................................................................................
    pItem->pExpr = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOldExpr, flags);
    if( pOldExpr 
     && pOldExpr->op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN
     && (pNewExpr = pItem->pExpr)!=0 
    ){
      assert( pNewExpr->iColumn==0 || i>0 );
      if( pNewExpr->iColumn==0 ){
        assert( pOldExpr->pLeft==pOldExpr->x.pRight );
        pPriorSelectCol = pNewExpr->pLeft = pNewExpr->x.pRight;
      }else{
        assert( i>0 );
        assert( pItem[-1].pExpr!=0 );
        assert( pNewExpr->iColumn==pItem[-1].pExpr->iColumn+1 );
        assert( pPriorSelectCol==pItem[-1].pExpr->pLeft );
        pNewExpr->pLeft = pPriorSelectCol;
      }
................................................................................
  if( !db->mallocFailed && pExpr->op==TK_SELECT && ALWAYS(pList!=0) ){
    Expr *pFirst = pList->a[iFirst].pExpr;
    assert( pFirst!=0 );
    assert( pFirst->op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN );
     
    /* Store the SELECT statement in pRight so it will be deleted when
    ** sqlite3ExprListDelete() is called */
    assert( pFirst->eX==EX_None );
    pFirst->x.pRight = pExpr;
    pFirst->eX = EX_Right;
    pExpr = 0;

    /* Remember the size of the LHS in iTable so that we can check that
    ** the RHS and LHS sizes match during code generation. */
    pFirst->iTable = pColumns->nId;
  }

................................................................................
      if( sqlite3IsBinary(pColl) ){
        return WRC_Prune;
      }
    }
  }

  /* Check if pExpr is a sub-select. If so, consider it variable. */
  if( pExpr->eX==EX_Select ){
    pWalker->eCode = 0;
    return WRC_Abort;
  }

  return exprNodeIsConstant(pWalker, pExpr);
}

................................................................................
  switch( op ){
    case TK_INTEGER:
    case TK_STRING:
    case TK_FLOAT:
    case TK_BLOB:
      return 0;
    case TK_COLUMN:
      assert( p->eX==EX_Tab );
      return ExprHasProperty(p, EP_CanBeNull) ||
             p->x.pTab==0 ||  /* Reference to column of index on expression */
             (p->iColumn>=0 && p->x.pTab->aCol[p->iColumn].notNull==0);
    default:
      return 1;
  }
}

/*
** Return TRUE if the given expression is a constant which would be
................................................................................
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
static Select *isCandidateForInOpt(Expr *pX){
  Select *p;
  SrcList *pSrc;
  ExprList *pEList;
  Table *pTab;
  int i;
  if( pX->eX!=EX_Select ) return 0;      /* Not a subquery */
  if( ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_VarSelect) ){
    return 0;                            /* Correlated subq */
  }
  p = pX->x.pSelect;
  if( p->pPrior ) return 0;              /* Not a compound SELECT */
  if( p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate) ){
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Distinct );
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Aggregate );
    return 0; /* No DISTINCT keyword and no aggregate functions */
  }
................................................................................
/*
** The argument is an IN operator with a list (not a subquery) on the 
** right-hand side.  Return TRUE if that list is constant.
*/
static int sqlite3InRhsIsConstant(Expr *pIn){
  Expr *pLHS;
  int res;
  assert( pIn->eX!=EX_Select );
  pLHS = pIn->pLeft;
  pIn->pLeft = 0;
  res = sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pIn);
  pIn->pLeft = pLHS;
  return res;
}
#endif
................................................................................
  mustBeUnique = (inFlags & IN_INDEX_LOOP)!=0;

  /* If the RHS of this IN(...) operator is a SELECT, and if it matters 
  ** whether or not the SELECT result contains NULL values, check whether
  ** or not NULL is actually possible (it may not be, for example, due 
  ** to NOT NULL constraints in the schema). If no NULL values are possible,
  ** set prRhsHasNull to 0 before continuing.  */
  if( prRhsHasNull && pX->eX==EX_Select ){
    int i;
    ExprList *pEList = pX->x.pSelect->pEList;
    for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
      if( sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pEList->a[i].pExpr) ) break;
    }
    if( i==pEList->nExpr ){
      prRhsHasNull = 0;
................................................................................
            }
          }
  
          colUsed = 0;   /* Columns of index used so far */
          for(i=0; i<nExpr; i++){
            Expr *pLhs = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pX->pLeft, i);
            Expr *pRhs = pEList->a[i].pExpr;
            CollSeq *pReq = sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(pParse, pLhs, pRhs);
            int j;
  
            assert( pReq!=0 || pRhs->iColumn==XN_ROWID || pParse->nErr );
            for(j=0; j<nExpr; j++){
              if( pIdx->aiColumn[j]!=pRhs->iColumn ) continue;
              assert( pIdx->azColl[j] );
              if( pReq!=0 && sqlite3StrICmp(pReq->zName, pIdx->azColl[j])!=0 ){
................................................................................
  ** and IN_INDEX_NOOP is an allowed reply
  ** and the RHS of the IN operator is a list, not a subquery
  ** and the RHS is not constant or has two or fewer terms,
  ** then it is not worth creating an ephemeral table to evaluate
  ** the IN operator so return IN_INDEX_NOOP.
  */
  if( eType==0
   && (inFlags & IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK)!=0
   && pX->eX==EX_List
   && (!sqlite3InRhsIsConstant(pX) || pX->x.pList->nExpr<=2)
  ){
    eType = IN_INDEX_NOOP;
  }

  if( eType==0 ){
    /* Could not find an existing table or index to use as the RHS b-tree.
................................................................................
    ** We will have to generate an ephemeral table to do the job.
    */
    u32 savedNQueryLoop = pParse->nQueryLoop;
    int rMayHaveNull = 0;
    eType = IN_INDEX_EPH;
    if( inFlags & IN_INDEX_LOOP ){
      pParse->nQueryLoop = 0;
      if( pX->pLeft->iColumn<0 && pX->eX==EX_List ){
        eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;
      }
    }else if( prRhsHasNull ){
      *prRhsHasNull = rMayHaveNull = ++pParse->nMem;
    }
    sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pX, rMayHaveNull, eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID);
    pParse->nQueryLoop = savedNQueryLoop;
................................................................................
**
** It is the responsibility of the caller to ensure that the returned
** string is eventually freed using sqlite3DbFree().
*/
static char *exprINAffinity(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
  int nVal = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
  Select *pSelect = (pExpr->eX==EX_Select) ? pExpr->x.pSelect : 0;
  char *zRet;

  assert( pExpr->op==TK_IN );
  zRet = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(pParse->db, nVal+1);
  if( zRet ){
    int i;
    for(i=0; i<nVal; i++){
................................................................................
**
** Or, if it is a regular scalar vector:
**
**   "row value misused"
*/   
void sqlite3VectorErrorMsg(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  if( pExpr->eX==EX_Select ){
    sqlite3SubselectError(pParse, pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr, 1);
  }else
#endif
  {
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
  }
}
................................................................................
      ** is used.
      */
      pExpr->iTable = pParse->nTab++;
      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, 
          pExpr->iTable, (isRowid?0:nVal));
      pKeyInfo = isRowid ? 0 : sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, nVal, 1);

      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Select || pExpr->eX==EX_List );
      if( pExpr->eX==EX_Select ){
        /* Case 1:     expr IN (SELECT ...)
        **
        ** Generate code to write the results of the select into the temporary
        ** table allocated and opened above.
        */
        Select *pSelect = pExpr->x.pSelect;
        ExprList *pEList = pSelect->pEList;
................................................................................
          sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, dest.zAffSdst);
          assert( pKeyInfo!=0 ); /* OOM will cause exit after sqlite3Select() */
          assert( pEList!=0 );
          assert( pEList->nExpr>0 );
          assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
          for(i=0; i<nVal; i++){
            Expr *p = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pLeft, i);
            pKeyInfo->aColl[i] = sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(
                pParse, p, pEList->a[i].pExpr
            );
          }
        }
      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList!=0) ){
        /* Case 2:     expr IN (exprlist)
        **
................................................................................
      SelectDest dest;                      /* How to deal with SELECT result */
      int nReg;                             /* Registers to allocate */
      Expr *pLimit;                         /* New limit expression */

      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Select );

      pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
      ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "%sSCALAR SUBQUERY",
            jmpIfDynamic>=0?"":"CORRELATED "));
      nReg = pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ? pSel->pEList->nExpr : 1;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, 0, pParse->nMem+1);
      pParse->nMem += nReg;
................................................................................
** Expr pIn is an IN(...) expression. This function checks that the 
** sub-select on the RHS of the IN() operator has the same number of 
** columns as the vector on the LHS. Or, if the RHS of the IN() is not 
** a sub-query, that the LHS is a vector of size 1.
*/
int sqlite3ExprCheckIN(Parse *pParse, Expr *pIn){
  int nVector = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pIn->pLeft);
  if( pIn->eX==EX_Select ){
    if( nVector!=pIn->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr ){
      sqlite3SubselectError(pParse, pIn->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr, nVector);
      return 1;
    }
  }else if( nVector!=1 ){
    sqlite3VectorErrorMsg(pParse, pIn->pLeft);
    return 1;
................................................................................
  if( eType==IN_INDEX_NOOP ){
    ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
    CollSeq *pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
    int labelOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
    int r2, regToFree;
    int regCkNull = 0;
    int ii;
    assert( pExpr->eX==EX_List );
    if( destIfNull!=destIfFalse ){
      regCkNull = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_BitAnd, rLhs, rLhs, regCkNull);
    }
    for(ii=0; ii<pList->nExpr; ii++){
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pList->a[ii].pExpr, &regToFree);
      if( regCkNull && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pList->a[ii].pExpr) ){
................................................................................
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FixedCol) ){
        /* This COLUMN expression is really a constant due to WHERE clause
        ** constraints, and that constant is coded by the pExpr->pLeft
        ** expresssion.  However, make sure the constant has the correct
        ** datatype by applying the Affinity of the table column to the
        ** constant.
        */
        int aff;
        int iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft,target);
        assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Tab );
        aff = sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pExpr->x.pTab, pExpr->iColumn);
        if( aff!=SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
          static const char zAff[] = "B\000C\000D\000E";
          assert( SQLITE_AFF_BLOB=='A' );
          assert( SQLITE_AFF_TEXT=='B' );
          if( iReg!=target ){
            sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, iReg, target);
            iReg = target;
................................................................................
          return pExpr->iColumn - pParse->iSelfTab;
        }else{
          /* Coding an expression that is part of an index where column names
          ** in the index refer to the table to which the index belongs */
          iTab = pParse->iSelfTab - 1;
        }
      }
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Tab );
      return sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(pParse, pExpr->x.pTab,
                               pExpr->iColumn, iTab, target,
                               pExpr->op2);
    }
    case TK_INTEGER: {
      codeInteger(pParse, pExpr, 0, target);
      return target;
    }
................................................................................
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pLeft) ){
        codeVectorCompare(pParse, pExpr, target, op, p5);
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pLeft, &regFree1);
        assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
        r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->x.pRight, &regFree2);
        codeCompare(pParse, pLeft, pExpr->x.pRight, op,
            r1, r2, inReg, SQLITE_STOREP2 | p5);
        assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
        assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
        assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
        assert(TK_GE==OP_Ge); testcase(op==OP_Ge); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ge);
        assert(TK_EQ==OP_Eq); testcase(op==OP_Eq); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Eq);
        assert(TK_NE==OP_Ne); testcase(op==OP_Ne); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ne);
................................................................................
      assert( TK_BITAND==OP_BitAnd );      testcase( op==TK_BITAND );
      assert( TK_BITOR==OP_BitOr );        testcase( op==TK_BITOR );
      assert( TK_SLASH==OP_Divide );       testcase( op==TK_SLASH );
      assert( TK_LSHIFT==OP_ShiftLeft );   testcase( op==TK_LSHIFT );
      assert( TK_RSHIFT==OP_ShiftRight );  testcase( op==TK_RSHIFT );
      assert( TK_CONCAT==OP_Concat );      testcase( op==TK_CONCAT );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->x.pRight, &regFree2);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, op, r2, r1, target);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      testcase( regFree2==0 );
      break;
    }
    case TK_UMINUS: {
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
................................................................................
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
      }else if( pLeft->op==TK_FLOAT ){
        assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
        codeReal(v, pLeft->u.zToken, 1, target);
        return target;
#endif
      }else{
        memset(&tempX, 0, sizeof(tempX));
        tempX.op = TK_INTEGER;
        tempX.flags = EP_IntValue|EP_TokenOnly;
        tempX.u.iValue = 0;
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, &tempX, &regFree1);
        r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree2);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Subtract, r2, r1, target);
        testcase( regFree2==0 );
................................................................................
      break;
    }
    case TK_TRUTH: {
      int isTrue;    /* IS TRUE or IS NOT TRUE */
      int bNormal;   /* IS TRUE or IS FALSE */
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      isTrue = sqlite3ExprTruthValue(pExpr->x.pRight);
      bNormal = pExpr->op2==TK_IS;
      testcase( isTrue && bNormal);
      testcase( !isTrue && bNormal);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IsTrue, r1, inReg, !isTrue, isTrue ^ bNormal);
      break;
    }
    case TK_ISNULL:
................................................................................
#endif

      if( ConstFactorOk(pParse) && sqlite3ExprIsConstantNotJoin(pExpr) ){
        /* SQL functions can be expensive. So try to move constant functions
        ** out of the inner loop, even if that means an extra OP_Copy. */
        return sqlite3ExprCodeAtInit(pParse, pExpr, -1);
      }
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_List || pExpr->eX==EX_None );
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly) ){
        pFarg = 0;
      }else{
        pFarg = pExpr->x.pList;
      }
      nFarg = pFarg ? pFarg->nExpr : 0;
      assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
................................................................................
      **
      ** Then p1 is interpreted as follows:
      **
      **   p1==0   ->    old.rowid     p1==3   ->    new.rowid
      **   p1==1   ->    old.a         p1==4   ->    new.a
      **   p1==2   ->    old.b         p1==5   ->    new.b       
      */
      Table *pTab;
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Tab );
      pTab = pExpr->x.pTab;
      int p1 = pExpr->iTable * (pTab->nCol+1) + 1 + pExpr->iColumn;

      assert( pExpr->iTable==0 || pExpr->iTable==1 );
      assert( pExpr->iColumn>=-1 && pExpr->iColumn<pTab->nCol );
      assert( pTab->iPKey<0 || pExpr->iColumn!=pTab->iPKey );
      assert( p1>=0 && p1<(pTab->nCol*2+2) );

      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Param, p1, target);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Tab );
      VdbeComment((v, "r[%d]=%s.%s", target,
        (pExpr->iTable ? "new" : "old"),
        (pExpr->iColumn<0 ? "rowid" : pExpr->x.pTab->aCol[pExpr->iColumn].zName)
      ));

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
      /* If the column has REAL affinity, it may currently be stored as an
      ** integer. Use OP_RealAffinity to make sure it is really real.
      **
      ** EVIDENCE-OF: R-60985-57662 SQLite will convert the value back to
................................................................................
      int i;                            /* Loop counter */
      ExprList *pEList;                 /* List of WHEN terms */
      struct ExprList_item *aListelem;  /* Array of WHEN terms */
      Expr opCompare;                   /* The X==Ei expression */
      Expr *pX;                         /* The X expression */
      Expr *pTest = 0;                  /* X==Ei (form A) or just Ei (form B) */

      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_List );
      assert( pExpr->x.pList->nExpr > 0);
      pEList = pExpr->x.pList;
      aListelem = pEList->a;
      nExpr = pEList->nExpr;
      endLabel = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      if( (pX = pExpr->pLeft)!=0 ){
        tempX = *pX;
        testcase( pX->op==TK_COLUMN );
................................................................................
        ** So make sure that the regFree1 register is not reused for other
        ** purposes and possibly overwritten.  */
        regFree1 = 0;
      }
      for(i=0; i<nExpr-1; i=i+2){
        if( pX ){
          assert( pTest!=0 );
          opCompare.x.pRight = aListelem[i].pExpr;
          opCompare.eX = EX_Right;
        }else{
          pTest = aListelem[i].pExpr;
        }
        nextCase = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
        testcase( pTest->op==TK_COLUMN );
        sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pTest, nextCase, SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
        testcase( aListelem[i+1].pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN );
................................................................................
  int regFree1 = 0; /* Temporary use register */


  memset(&compLeft, 0, sizeof(Expr));
  memset(&compRight, 0, sizeof(Expr));
  memset(&exprAnd, 0, sizeof(Expr));

  assert( pExpr->eX==EX_List );
  exprX = *pExpr->pLeft;
  exprAnd.op = TK_AND;
  exprAnd.pLeft = &compLeft;
  exprAnd.x.pRight = &compRight;
  exprAnd.eX = EX_Right;
  compLeft.op = TK_GE;
  compLeft.pLeft = &exprX;
  compLeft.x.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;
  compLeft.eX = EX_Right;
  compRight.op = TK_LE;
  compRight.pLeft = &exprX;
  compRight.x.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr;
  compRight.eX = EX_Right;
  exprToRegister(&exprX, exprCodeVector(pParse, &exprX, &regFree1));
  if( xJump ){
    xJump(pParse, &exprAnd, dest, jumpIfNull);
  }else{
    /* Mark the expression is being from the ON or USING clause of a join
    ** so that the sqlite3ExprCodeTarget() routine will not attempt to move
    ** it into the Parse.pConstExpr list.  We should use a new bit for this,
................................................................................
  if( NEVER(pExpr==0) ) return;  /* No way this can happen */
  op = pExpr->op;
  switch( op ){
    case TK_AND: {
      int d2 = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, d2,jumpIfNull^SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->x.pRight, dest, jumpIfNull);
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, d2);
      break;
    }
    case TK_OR: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->x.pRight, dest, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
    case TK_NOT: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
    case TK_TRUTH: {
      int isNot;      /* IS NOT TRUE or IS NOT FALSE */
      int isTrue;     /* IS TRUE or IS NOT TRUE */
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      isNot = pExpr->op2==TK_ISNOT;
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      isTrue = sqlite3ExprTruthValue(pExpr->x.pRight);
      testcase( isTrue && isNot );
      testcase( !isTrue && isNot );
      if( isTrue ^ isNot ){
        sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest,
                          isNot ? SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL : 0);
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest,
................................................................................
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pExpr->pLeft) ) goto default_expr;
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->x.pRight, &regFree2);
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->x.pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
      assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
      assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
      assert(TK_GE==OP_Ge); testcase(op==OP_Ge); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ge);
      assert(TK_EQ==OP_Eq); testcase(op==OP_Eq);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_Eq && jumpIfNull==SQLITE_NULLEQ);
................................................................................
  assert( pExpr->op!=TK_GT || op==OP_Le );
  assert( pExpr->op!=TK_GE || op==OP_Lt );

  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_AND: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->x.pRight, dest, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
    case TK_OR: {
      int d2 = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, d2, jumpIfNull^SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->x.pRight, dest, jumpIfNull);
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, d2);
      break;
    }
    case TK_NOT: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
    case TK_TRUTH: {
      int isNot;   /* IS NOT TRUE or IS NOT FALSE */
      int isTrue;  /* IS TRUE or IS NOT TRUE */
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      isNot = pExpr->op2==TK_ISNOT;
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      isTrue = sqlite3ExprTruthValue(pExpr->x.pRight);
      testcase( isTrue && isNot );
      testcase( !isTrue && isNot );
      if( isTrue ^ isNot ){
        /* IS TRUE and IS NOT FALSE */
        sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, dest,
                           isNot ? 0 : SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);

................................................................................
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pExpr->pLeft) ) goto default_expr;
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->x.pRight, &regFree2);
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->x.pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
      assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
      assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
      assert(TK_GE==OP_Ge); testcase(op==OP_Ge); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ge);
      assert(TK_EQ==OP_Eq); testcase(op==OP_Eq);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_Eq && jumpIfNull!=SQLITE_NULLEQ);
................................................................................
      if( sqlite3_stricmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ) return 2;
    }else if( strcmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ){
      return 2;
    }
  }
  if( (pA->flags & EP_Distinct)!=(pB->flags & EP_Distinct) ) return 2;
  if( ALWAYS((combinedFlags & EP_TokenOnly)==0) ){
    if( pA->eX==EX_Select || pA->eX!=pB->eX ) return 2;
    if( (combinedFlags & EP_FixedCol)==0
     && sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pA->pLeft, pB->pLeft, iTab) ) return 2;
    if( pA->eX==EX_Right ){
      if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse,pA->x.pRight,pB->x.pRight,iTab) ) return 2;
    }
    if( pA->eX==EX_List ){
      if( sqlite3ExprListCompare(pA->x.pList, pB->x.pList, iTab) ) return 2;
    }
    assert( (combinedFlags & EP_Reduced)==0 );
    if( pA->op!=TK_STRING && pA->op!=TK_TRUEFALSE ){
      if( pA->iColumn!=pB->iColumn ) return 2;
      if( pA->iTable!=pB->iTable 
       && (pA->iTable!=iTab || NEVER(pB->iTable>=0)) ) return 2;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
................................................................................
** improvement.  Returning false might cause a performance reduction, but
** it will always give the correct answer and is hence always safe.
*/
int sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(Parse *pParse, Expr *pE1, Expr *pE2, int iTab){
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pE1, pE2, iTab)==0 ){
    return 1;
  }
  assert( pE2->op!=TK_OR || pE2->eX==EX_Right );
  if( pE2->op==TK_OR
   && (sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(pParse, pE1, pE2->pLeft, iTab)
             || sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(pParse, pE1, pE2->x.pRight, iTab) )
  ){
    return 1;
  }
  if( pE2->op==TK_NOTNULL && pE1->op!=TK_ISNULL && pE1->op!=TK_IS ){
    Expr *pX = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pE1->pLeft);
    testcase( pX!=pE1->pLeft );
    if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pX, pE2->pLeft, iTab)==0 ) return 1;
................................................................................
    case TK_GE:
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EQ );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_NE );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LT );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LE );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_GT );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_GE );
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      if( (pExpr->pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN && IsVirtual(pExpr->pLeft->x.pTab))
       || (pExpr->x.pRight->op==TK_COLUMN && IsVirtual(pExpr->x.pRight->x.pTab))
      ){
       return WRC_Prune;
      }
    default:
      return WRC_Continue;
  }
}
................................................................................
                break;
              }
            }
            if( (k>=pAggInfo->nColumn)
             && (k = addAggInfoColumn(pParse->db, pAggInfo))>=0 
            ){
              pCol = &pAggInfo->aCol[k];
              assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Tab );
              pCol->pTab = pExpr->x.pTab;
              pCol->iTable = pExpr->iTable;
              pCol->iColumn = pExpr->iColumn;
              pCol->iMem = ++pParse->nMem;
              pCol->iSorterColumn = -1;
              pCol->pExpr = pExpr;
              if( pAggInfo->pGroupBy ){
                int j, n;
................................................................................
        }
        if( i>=pAggInfo->nFunc ){
          /* pExpr is original.  Make a new entry in pAggInfo->aFunc[]
          */
          u8 enc = ENC(pParse->db);
          i = addAggInfoFunc(pParse->db, pAggInfo);
          if( i>=0 ){
            assert( pExpr->eX==EX_List || pExpr->eX==EX_None );
            pItem = &pAggInfo->aFunc[i];
            pItem->pExpr = pExpr;
            pItem->iMem = ++pParse->nMem;
            assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
            pItem->pFunc = sqlite3FindFunction(pParse->db,
                   pExpr->u.zToken, 
                   pExpr->eX==EX_List ? pExpr->x.pList->nExpr : 0, enc, 0);
            if( pExpr->flags & EP_Distinct ){
              pItem->iDistinct = pParse->nTab++;
            }else{
              pItem->iDistinct = -1;
            }
          }
        }

Changes to src/fkey.c.

498
499
500
501
502
503
504


505


506
507
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512
  sqlite3 *db,      /* The database connection */
  Table *pTab,      /* The table whose column is desired */
  int iCursor,      /* The open cursor on the table */
  i16 iCol          /* The column that is wanted */
){
  Expr *pExpr = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_COLUMN, 0);
  if( pExpr ){


    pExpr->pTab = pTab;


    pExpr->iTable = iCursor;
    pExpr->iColumn = iCol;
  }
  return pExpr;
}

/*







>
>
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>
>







498
499
500
501
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504
505
506
507
508
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510
511
512
513
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516
  sqlite3 *db,      /* The database connection */
  Table *pTab,      /* The table whose column is desired */
  int iCursor,      /* The open cursor on the table */
  i16 iCol          /* The column that is wanted */
){
  Expr *pExpr = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_COLUMN, 0);
  if( pExpr ){
    assert( pExpr->eX==EX_None );
    if( pTab ){
      pExpr->x.pTab = pTab;
      pExpr->eX = EX_Tab;
    }
    pExpr->iTable = iCursor;
    pExpr->iColumn = iCol;
  }
  return pExpr;
}

/*

Changes to src/func.c.

1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
*/
int sqlite3IsLikeFunction(sqlite3 *db, Expr *pExpr, int *pIsNocase, char *aWc){
  FuncDef *pDef;
  int nExpr;
  if( pExpr->op!=TK_FUNCTION || !pExpr->x.pList ){
    return 0;
  }
  assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
  nExpr = pExpr->x.pList->nExpr;
  pDef = sqlite3FindFunction(db, pExpr->u.zToken, nExpr, SQLITE_UTF8, 0);
  if( NEVER(pDef==0) || (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_LIKE)==0 ){
    return 0;
  }
  if( nExpr<3 ){
    aWc[3] = 0;







|







1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
*/
int sqlite3IsLikeFunction(sqlite3 *db, Expr *pExpr, int *pIsNocase, char *aWc){
  FuncDef *pDef;
  int nExpr;
  if( pExpr->op!=TK_FUNCTION || !pExpr->x.pList ){
    return 0;
  }
  assert( pExpr->eX==EX_List );
  nExpr = pExpr->x.pList->nExpr;
  pDef = sqlite3FindFunction(db, pExpr->u.zToken, nExpr, SQLITE_UTF8, 0);
  if( NEVER(pDef==0) || (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_LIKE)==0 ){
    return 0;
  }
  if( nExpr<3 ){
    aWc[3] = 0;

Changes to src/parse.y.

932
933
934
935
936
937
938

939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
....
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
....
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110

1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
....
1139
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1143
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1147
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1191
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1203
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1227
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1234
1235
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1237
1238
1239
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1243
1244
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1247
  */
  static Expr *tokenExpr(Parse *pParse, int op, Token t){
    Expr *p = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(pParse->db, sizeof(Expr)+t.n+1);
    if( p ){
      /* memset(p, 0, sizeof(Expr)); */
      p->op = (u8)op;
      p->affinity = 0;

      p->flags = EP_Leaf;
      p->iAgg = -1;
      p->pLeft = p->pRight = 0;
      p->x.pList = 0;
      p->pAggInfo = 0;
      p->pTab = 0;
      p->op2 = 0;
      p->iTable = 0;
      p->iColumn = 0;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
      p->pWin = 0;
#endif
      p->u.zToken = (char*)&p[1];
................................................................................
term(A) ::= CTIME_KW(OP). {
  A = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, 0, &OP, 0);
}

expr(A) ::= LP nexprlist(X) COMMA expr(Y) RP. {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, X, Y);
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_VECTOR, 0, 0);
  if( A ){
    A->x.pList = pList;
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  }
}

expr(A) ::= expr(A) AND(OP) expr(Y).    {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) OR(OP) expr(Y).     {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) LT|GT|GE|LE(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) EQ|NE(OP) expr(Y).  {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
................................................................................
expr(A) ::= expr(A) NOT NULL.    {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_NOTNULL,A,0);}

%include {
  /* A routine to convert a binary TK_IS or TK_ISNOT expression into a
  ** unary TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL expression. */
  static void binaryToUnaryIfNull(Parse *pParse, Expr *pY, Expr *pA, int op){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
    if( pA && pY && pY->op==TK_NULL && !IN_RENAME_OBJECT ){
      pA->op = (u8)op;
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pA->pRight);
      pA->pRight = 0;

    }
  }
}

//    expr1 IS expr2
//    expr1 IS NOT expr2
//
................................................................................
%type between_op {int}
between_op(A) ::= BETWEEN.     {A = 0;}
between_op(A) ::= NOT BETWEEN. {A = 1;}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) between_op(N) expr(X) AND expr(Y). [BETWEEN] {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, X);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, Y);
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_BETWEEN, A, 0);
  if( A ){
    A->x.pList = pList;
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  } 
  if( N ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  %type in_op {int}
  in_op(A) ::= IN.      {A = 0;}
  in_op(A) ::= NOT IN.  {A = 1;}
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) LP exprlist(Y) RP. [IN] {
................................................................................
      if( ALWAYS(pRHS) ){
        pRHS->flags &= ~EP_Collate;
        pRHS->flags |= EP_Generic;
      }
      A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, N ? TK_NE : TK_EQ, A, pRHS);
    }else{
      A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A, 0);
      if( A ){
        A->x.pList = Y;
        sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A);
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
      }
      if( N ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);
    }
  }
  expr(A) ::= LP select(X) RP. {
    A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_SELECT, 0, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A, X);
  }
................................................................................
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, p, Y);
  }
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

/* CASE expressions */
expr(A) ::= CASE case_operand(X) case_exprlist(Y) case_else(Z) END. {
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CASE, X, 0);
  if( A ){
    A->x.pList = Z ? sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,Y,Z) : Y;
    sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A);
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, Z);
  }
}
%type case_exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor case_exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_exprlist(A) ::= case_exprlist(A) WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Y);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z);
}







>


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<

<







 







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<
<
<
<







 







|

|
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>







 







|
<
<
<
<







 







|
<
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<
<
<







 







<
|
|
<
<
<
<







932
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943

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950
....
1047
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1052
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1054




1055
1056
1057
1058
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1061
....
1095
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1224
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1230
  */
  static Expr *tokenExpr(Parse *pParse, int op, Token t){
    Expr *p = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(pParse->db, sizeof(Expr)+t.n+1);
    if( p ){
      /* memset(p, 0, sizeof(Expr)); */
      p->op = (u8)op;
      p->affinity = 0;
      p->eX = EX_None;
      p->flags = EP_Leaf;
      p->iAgg = -1;
      p->pLeft = 0;

      p->pAggInfo = 0;

      p->op2 = 0;
      p->iTable = 0;
      p->iColumn = 0;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
      p->pWin = 0;
#endif
      p->u.zToken = (char*)&p[1];
................................................................................
term(A) ::= CTIME_KW(OP). {
  A = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, 0, &OP, 0);
}

expr(A) ::= LP nexprlist(X) COMMA expr(Y) RP. {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, X, Y);
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_VECTOR, 0, 0);
  sqlite3PExprAddExprList(pParse, A, pList);




}

expr(A) ::= expr(A) AND(OP) expr(Y).    {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) OR(OP) expr(Y).     {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) LT|GT|GE|LE(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) EQ|NE(OP) expr(Y).  {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
................................................................................
expr(A) ::= expr(A) NOT NULL.    {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_NOTNULL,A,0);}

%include {
  /* A routine to convert a binary TK_IS or TK_ISNOT expression into a
  ** unary TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL expression. */
  static void binaryToUnaryIfNull(Parse *pParse, Expr *pY, Expr *pA, int op){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
    if( pA && pY && pY->op==TK_NULL && pA->eX==EX_Right && !IN_RENAME_OBJECT ){
      pA->op = (u8)op;
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pA->x.pRight);
      pA->x.pRight = 0;
      pA->eX = EX_None;
    }
  }
}

//    expr1 IS expr2
//    expr1 IS NOT expr2
//
................................................................................
%type between_op {int}
between_op(A) ::= BETWEEN.     {A = 0;}
between_op(A) ::= NOT BETWEEN. {A = 1;}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) between_op(N) expr(X) AND expr(Y). [BETWEEN] {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, X);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, Y);
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_BETWEEN, A, 0);
  sqlite3PExprAddExprList(pParse, A, pList);




  if( N ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  %type in_op {int}
  in_op(A) ::= IN.      {A = 0;}
  in_op(A) ::= NOT IN.  {A = 1;}
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) LP exprlist(Y) RP. [IN] {
................................................................................
      if( ALWAYS(pRHS) ){
        pRHS->flags &= ~EP_Collate;
        pRHS->flags |= EP_Generic;
      }
      A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, N ? TK_NE : TK_EQ, A, pRHS);
    }else{
      A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A, 0);
      sqlite3PExprAddExprList(pParse, A, Y);

      sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A);



      if( N ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);
    }
  }
  expr(A) ::= LP select(X) RP. {
    A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_SELECT, 0, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A, X);
  }
................................................................................
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, p, Y);
  }
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

/* CASE expressions */
expr(A) ::= CASE case_operand(X) case_exprlist(Y) case_else(Z) END. {
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CASE, X, 0);

  sqlite3PExprAddExprList(pParse,A,Z ? sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,Y,Z) : Y);
  sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A);




}
%type case_exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor case_exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_exprlist(A) ::= case_exprlist(A) WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Y);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z);
}

Changes to src/resolve.c.

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**    pExpr->iTable        Set to the cursor number for the table obtained
**                         from pSrcList.
**    pExpr->pTab          Points to the Table structure of X.Y (even if
**                         X and/or Y are implied.)
**    pExpr->iColumn       Set to the column number within the table.
**    pExpr->op            Set to TK_COLUMN.
**    pExpr->pLeft         Any expression this points to is deleted
**    pExpr->pRight        Any expression this points to is deleted.
**
** The zDb variable is the name of the database (the "X").  This value may be
** NULL meaning that name is of the form Y.Z or Z.  Any available database
** can be used.  The zTable variable is the name of the table (the "Y").  This
** value can be NULL if zDb is also NULL.  If zTable is NULL it
** means that the form of the name is Z and that columns from any table
** can be used.
................................................................................

  assert( pNC );     /* the name context cannot be NULL. */
  assert( zCol );    /* The Z in X.Y.Z cannot be NULL */
  assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );

  /* Initialize the node to no-match */
  pExpr->iTable = -1;
  pExpr->pTab = 0;
  ExprSetVVAProperty(pExpr, EP_NoReduce);

  /* Translate the schema name in zDb into a pointer to the corresponding
  ** schema.  If not found, pSchema will remain NULL and nothing will match
  ** resulting in an appropriate error message toward the end of this routine
  */
  if( zDb ){
................................................................................
        if( zTab ){
          const char *zTabName = pItem->zAlias ? pItem->zAlias : pTab->zName;
          assert( zTabName!=0 );
          if( sqlite3StrICmp(zTabName, zTab)!=0 ){
            continue;
          }
          if( IN_RENAME_OBJECT && pItem->zAlias ){
            sqlite3RenameTokenRemap(pParse, 0, (void*)&pExpr->pTab);
          }
        }
        if( 0==(cntTab++) ){
          pMatch = pItem;
        }
        for(j=0, pCol=pTab->aCol; j<pTab->nCol; j++, pCol++){
          if( sqlite3StrICmp(pCol->zName, zCol)==0 ){
................................................................................
            pExpr->iColumn = j==pTab->iPKey ? -1 : (i16)j;
            break;
          }
        }
      }
      if( pMatch ){
        pExpr->iTable = pMatch->iCursor;
        pExpr->pTab = pMatch->pTab;
        /* RIGHT JOIN not (yet) supported */
        assert( (pMatch->fg.jointype & JT_RIGHT)==0 );
        if( (pMatch->fg.jointype & JT_LEFT)!=0 ){
          ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_CanBeNull);
        }
        pSchema = pExpr->pTab->pSchema;
      }
    } /* if( pSrcList ) */

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT)
    /* If we have not already resolved the name, then maybe 
    ** it is a new.* or old.* trigger argument reference.  Or
    ** maybe it is an excluded.* from an upsert.
................................................................................
        if( iCol<pTab->nCol ){
          cnt++;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
          if( pExpr->iTable==2 ){
            testcase( iCol==(-1) );
            if( IN_RENAME_OBJECT ){
              pExpr->iColumn = iCol;
              pExpr->pTab = pTab;
              eNewExprOp = TK_COLUMN;
            }else{
              pExpr->iTable = pNC->uNC.pUpsert->regData + iCol;
              eNewExprOp = TK_REGISTER;
              ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Alias);
            }
          }else
................................................................................
              testcase( iCol==32 );
              pParse->oldmask |= (iCol>=32 ? 0xffffffff : (((u32)1)<<iCol));
            }else{
              testcase( iCol==31 );
              testcase( iCol==32 );
              pParse->newmask |= (iCol>=32 ? 0xffffffff : (((u32)1)<<iCol));
            }
            pExpr->pTab = pTab;
            pExpr->iColumn = (i16)iCol;
            eNewExprOp = TK_TRIGGER;
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER */
          }
        }
      }
    }
................................................................................
    ){
      pEList = pNC->uNC.pEList;
      assert( pEList!=0 );
      for(j=0; j<pEList->nExpr; j++){
        char *zAs = pEList->a[j].zName;
        if( zAs!=0 && sqlite3StrICmp(zAs, zCol)==0 ){
          Expr *pOrig;
          assert( pExpr->pLeft==0 && pExpr->pRight==0 );
          assert( pExpr->x.pList==0 );
          assert( pExpr->x.pSelect==0 );
          pOrig = pEList->a[j].pExpr;
          if( (pNC->ncFlags&NC_AllowAgg)==0 && ExprHasProperty(pOrig, EP_Agg) ){
            sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "misuse of aliased aggregate %s", zAs);
            return WRC_Abort;
          }
          if( sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pOrig)!=1 ){
            sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
................................................................................
  ** Because no reference was made to outer contexts, the pNC->nRef
  ** fields are not changed in any context.
  */
  if( cnt==0 && zTab==0 ){
    assert( pExpr->op==TK_ID );
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr,EP_DblQuoted) ){
      pExpr->op = TK_STRING;
      pExpr->pTab = 0;
      return WRC_Prune;
    }
    if( sqlite3ExprIdToTrueFalse(pExpr) ){
      return WRC_Prune;
    }
  }

................................................................................
    pMatch->colUsed |= ((Bitmask)1)<<n;
  }

  /* Clean up and return
  */
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr->pLeft);
  pExpr->pLeft = 0;

  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr->pRight);
  pExpr->pRight = 0;


  pExpr->op = eNewExprOp;
  ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Leaf);
lookupname_end:
  if( cnt==1 ){
    assert( pNC!=0 );
    if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Alias) ){
      sqlite3AuthRead(pParse, pExpr, pSchema, pNC->pSrcList);
................................................................................
** Allocate and return a pointer to an expression to load the column iCol
** from datasource iSrc in SrcList pSrc.
*/
Expr *sqlite3CreateColumnExpr(sqlite3 *db, SrcList *pSrc, int iSrc, int iCol){
  Expr *p = sqlite3ExprAlloc(db, TK_COLUMN, 0, 0);
  if( p ){
    struct SrcList_item *pItem = &pSrc->a[iSrc];
    p->pTab = pItem->pTab;
    p->iTable = pItem->iCursor;
    if( p->pTab->iPKey==iCol ){
      p->iColumn = -1;
    }else{
      p->iColumn = (ynVar)iCol;
      testcase( iCol==BMS );
      testcase( iCol==BMS-1 );
      pItem->colUsed |= ((Bitmask)1)<<(iCol>=BMS ? BMS-1 : iCol);
    }
................................................................................
      if( pExpr->op==TK_ID ){
        zDb = 0;
        zTable = 0;
        zColumn = pExpr->u.zToken;
      }else{
        Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
        notValid(pParse, pNC, "the \".\" operator", NC_IdxExpr);

        pRight = pExpr->pRight;
        if( pRight->op==TK_ID ){
          zDb = 0;
        }else{
          assert( pRight->op==TK_DOT );

          zDb = pLeft->u.zToken;
          pLeft = pRight->pLeft;
          pRight = pRight->pRight;
        }
        zTable = pLeft->u.zToken;
        zColumn = pRight->u.zToken;
        if( IN_RENAME_OBJECT ){
          sqlite3RenameTokenRemap(pParse, (void*)pExpr, (void*)pRight);


        }
        if( IN_RENAME_OBJECT ){
          sqlite3RenameTokenRemap(pParse, (void*)&pExpr->pTab, (void*)pLeft);
        }
      }
      return lookupName(pParse, zDb, zTable, zColumn, pNC, pExpr);
    }

    /* Resolve function names
    */
    case TK_FUNCTION: {
      ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;    /* The argument list */
      int n = pList ? pList->nExpr : 0;    /* Number of arguments */
      int no_such_func = 0;       /* True if no such function exists */
      int wrong_num_args = 0;     /* True if wrong number of arguments */
      int is_agg = 0;             /* True if is an aggregate function */
      int nId;                    /* Number of characters in function name */
      const char *zId;            /* The function name. */
      FuncDef *pDef;              /* Information about the function */
      u8 enc = ENC(pParse->db);   /* The database encoding */

      assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );







      zId = pExpr->u.zToken;
      nId = sqlite3Strlen30(zId);
      pDef = sqlite3FindFunction(pParse->db, zId, n, enc, 0);
      if( pDef==0 ){
        pDef = sqlite3FindFunction(pParse->db, zId, -2, enc, 0);
        if( pDef==0 ){
          no_such_func = 1;
................................................................................
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_SELECT:
    case TK_EXISTS:  testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
#endif
    case TK_IN: {
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_IN );
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        int nRef = pNC->nRef;
        notValid(pParse, pNC, "subqueries", NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr);
        sqlite3WalkSelect(pWalker, pExpr->x.pSelect);
        assert( pNC->nRef>=nRef );
        if( nRef!=pNC->nRef ){
          ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_VarSelect);
          pNC->ncFlags |= NC_VarSelect;
................................................................................
    }
    case TK_IS:
    case TK_ISNOT: {
      Expr *pRight;
      assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Reduced) );
      /* Handle special cases of "x IS TRUE", "x IS FALSE", "x IS NOT TRUE",
      ** and "x IS NOT FALSE". */

      if( (pRight = pExpr->pRight)->op==TK_ID ){
        int rc = resolveExprStep(pWalker, pRight);
        if( rc==WRC_Abort ) return WRC_Abort;
        if( pRight->op==TK_TRUEFALSE ){
          pExpr->op2 = pExpr->op;
          pExpr->op = TK_TRUTH;
          return WRC_Continue;
        }
................................................................................
      nLeft = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft);
      if( pExpr->op==TK_BETWEEN ){
        nRight = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr);
        if( nRight==nLeft ){
          nRight = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr);
        }
      }else{
        assert( pExpr->pRight!=0 );
        nRight = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pRight);
      }
      if( nLeft!=nRight ){
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EQ );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_NE );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LT );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LE );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_GT );







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**    pExpr->iTable        Set to the cursor number for the table obtained
**                         from pSrcList.
**    pExpr->pTab          Points to the Table structure of X.Y (even if
**                         X and/or Y are implied.)
**    pExpr->iColumn       Set to the column number within the table.
**    pExpr->op            Set to TK_COLUMN.
**    pExpr->pLeft         Any expression this points to is deleted
**    pExpr->x.pRight      Any expression this points to is deleted.
**
** The zDb variable is the name of the database (the "X").  This value may be
** NULL meaning that name is of the form Y.Z or Z.  Any available database
** can be used.  The zTable variable is the name of the table (the "Y").  This
** value can be NULL if zDb is also NULL.  If zTable is NULL it
** means that the form of the name is Z and that columns from any table
** can be used.
................................................................................

  assert( pNC );     /* the name context cannot be NULL. */
  assert( zCol );    /* The Z in X.Y.Z cannot be NULL */
  assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );

  /* Initialize the node to no-match */
  pExpr->iTable = -1;

  ExprSetVVAProperty(pExpr, EP_NoReduce);

  /* Translate the schema name in zDb into a pointer to the corresponding
  ** schema.  If not found, pSchema will remain NULL and nothing will match
  ** resulting in an appropriate error message toward the end of this routine
  */
  if( zDb ){
................................................................................
        if( zTab ){
          const char *zTabName = pItem->zAlias ? pItem->zAlias : pTab->zName;
          assert( zTabName!=0 );
          if( sqlite3StrICmp(zTabName, zTab)!=0 ){
            continue;
          }
          if( IN_RENAME_OBJECT && pItem->zAlias ){
            sqlite3RenameTokenRemap(pParse, 0, (void*)&pExpr->x.pTab);
          }
        }
        if( 0==(cntTab++) ){
          pMatch = pItem;
        }
        for(j=0, pCol=pTab->aCol; j<pTab->nCol; j++, pCol++){
          if( sqlite3StrICmp(pCol->zName, zCol)==0 ){
................................................................................
            pExpr->iColumn = j==pTab->iPKey ? -1 : (i16)j;
            break;
          }
        }
      }
      if( pMatch ){
        pExpr->iTable = pMatch->iCursor;
        sqlite3ExprAddTab(db, pExpr, pMatch->pTab);
        /* RIGHT JOIN not (yet) supported */
        assert( (pMatch->fg.jointype & JT_RIGHT)==0 );
        if( (pMatch->fg.jointype & JT_LEFT)!=0 ){
          ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_CanBeNull);
        }
        pSchema = pExpr->x.pTab->pSchema;
      }
    } /* if( pSrcList ) */

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT)
    /* If we have not already resolved the name, then maybe 
    ** it is a new.* or old.* trigger argument reference.  Or
    ** maybe it is an excluded.* from an upsert.
................................................................................
        if( iCol<pTab->nCol ){
          cnt++;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
          if( pExpr->iTable==2 ){
            testcase( iCol==(-1) );
            if( IN_RENAME_OBJECT ){
              pExpr->iColumn = iCol;
              sqlite3ExprAddTab(db, pExpr, pTab);
              eNewExprOp = TK_COLUMN;
            }else{
              pExpr->iTable = pNC->uNC.pUpsert->regData + iCol;
              eNewExprOp = TK_REGISTER;
              ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Alias);
            }
          }else
................................................................................
              testcase( iCol==32 );
              pParse->oldmask |= (iCol>=32 ? 0xffffffff : (((u32)1)<<iCol));
            }else{
              testcase( iCol==31 );
              testcase( iCol==32 );
              pParse->newmask |= (iCol>=32 ? 0xffffffff : (((u32)1)<<iCol));
            }
            sqlite3ExprAddTab(db, pExpr, pTab);
            pExpr->iColumn = (i16)iCol;
            eNewExprOp = TK_TRIGGER;
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER */
          }
        }
      }
    }
................................................................................
    ){
      pEList = pNC->uNC.pEList;
      assert( pEList!=0 );
      for(j=0; j<pEList->nExpr; j++){
        char *zAs = pEList->a[j].zName;
        if( zAs!=0 && sqlite3StrICmp(zAs, zCol)==0 ){
          Expr *pOrig;
          assert( pExpr->pLeft==0 );


          pOrig = pEList->a[j].pExpr;
          if( (pNC->ncFlags&NC_AllowAgg)==0 && ExprHasProperty(pOrig, EP_Agg) ){
            sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "misuse of aliased aggregate %s", zAs);
            return WRC_Abort;
          }
          if( sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pOrig)!=1 ){
            sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
................................................................................
  ** Because no reference was made to outer contexts, the pNC->nRef
  ** fields are not changed in any context.
  */
  if( cnt==0 && zTab==0 ){
    assert( pExpr->op==TK_ID );
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr,EP_DblQuoted) ){
      pExpr->op = TK_STRING;

      return WRC_Prune;
    }
    if( sqlite3ExprIdToTrueFalse(pExpr) ){
      return WRC_Prune;
    }
  }

................................................................................
    pMatch->colUsed |= ((Bitmask)1)<<n;
  }

  /* Clean up and return
  */
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr->pLeft);
  pExpr->pLeft = 0;
  if( pExpr->eX==EX_Right ){
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr->x.pRight);
    pExpr->x.pRight = 0;
    pExpr->eX = EX_None;
  }
  pExpr->op = eNewExprOp;
  ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Leaf);
lookupname_end:
  if( cnt==1 ){
    assert( pNC!=0 );
    if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Alias) ){
      sqlite3AuthRead(pParse, pExpr, pSchema, pNC->pSrcList);
................................................................................
** Allocate and return a pointer to an expression to load the column iCol
** from datasource iSrc in SrcList pSrc.
*/
Expr *sqlite3CreateColumnExpr(sqlite3 *db, SrcList *pSrc, int iSrc, int iCol){
  Expr *p = sqlite3ExprAlloc(db, TK_COLUMN, 0, 0);
  if( p ){
    struct SrcList_item *pItem = &pSrc->a[iSrc];
    sqlite3ExprAddTab(db, p, pItem->pTab);
    p->iTable = pItem->iCursor;
    if( p->x.pTab->iPKey==iCol ){
      p->iColumn = -1;
    }else{
      p->iColumn = (ynVar)iCol;
      testcase( iCol==BMS );
      testcase( iCol==BMS-1 );
      pItem->colUsed |= ((Bitmask)1)<<(iCol>=BMS ? BMS-1 : iCol);
    }
................................................................................
      if( pExpr->op==TK_ID ){
        zDb = 0;
        zTable = 0;
        zColumn = pExpr->u.zToken;
      }else{
        Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
        notValid(pParse, pNC, "the \".\" operator", NC_IdxExpr);
        assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
        pRight = pExpr->x.pRight;
        if( pRight->op==TK_ID ){
          zDb = 0;
        }else{
          assert( pRight->op==TK_DOT );
          assert( pRight->eX==EX_Right );
          zDb = pLeft->u.zToken;
          pLeft = pRight->pLeft;
          pRight = pRight->x.pRight;
        }
        zTable = pLeft->u.zToken;
        zColumn = pRight->u.zToken;
        if( IN_RENAME_OBJECT ){
          sqlite3RenameTokenRemap(pParse, (void*)pExpr, (void*)pRight);
          if( pExpr->eX==EX_Tab ){
            sqlite3RenameTokenRemap(pParse, (void*)&pExpr->x.pTab,(void*)pLeft);
          }


        }
      }
      return lookupName(pParse, zDb, zTable, zColumn, pNC, pExpr);
    }

    /* Resolve function names
    */
    case TK_FUNCTION: {
      ExprList *pList;            /* The argument list */
      int n;                      /* Number of arguments */
      int no_such_func = 0;       /* True if no such function exists */
      int wrong_num_args = 0;     /* True if wrong number of arguments */
      int is_agg = 0;             /* True if is an aggregate function */
      int nId;                    /* Number of characters in function name */
      const char *zId;            /* The function name. */
      FuncDef *pDef;              /* Information about the function */
      u8 enc = ENC(pParse->db);   /* The database encoding */

      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_List || pExpr->eX==EX_None );
      if( pExpr->eX==EX_List ){
        pList = pExpr->x.pList;
        n = pList->nExpr;
      }else{
        pList = 0;
        n = 0;
      }
      zId = pExpr->u.zToken;
      nId = sqlite3Strlen30(zId);
      pDef = sqlite3FindFunction(pParse->db, zId, n, enc, 0);
      if( pDef==0 ){
        pDef = sqlite3FindFunction(pParse->db, zId, -2, enc, 0);
        if( pDef==0 ){
          no_such_func = 1;
................................................................................
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_SELECT:
    case TK_EXISTS:  testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
#endif
    case TK_IN: {
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_IN );
      if( pExpr->eX==EX_Select ){
        int nRef = pNC->nRef;
        notValid(pParse, pNC, "subqueries", NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr);
        sqlite3WalkSelect(pWalker, pExpr->x.pSelect);
        assert( pNC->nRef>=nRef );
        if( nRef!=pNC->nRef ){
          ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_VarSelect);
          pNC->ncFlags |= NC_VarSelect;
................................................................................
    }
    case TK_IS:
    case TK_ISNOT: {
      Expr *pRight;
      assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Reduced) );
      /* Handle special cases of "x IS TRUE", "x IS FALSE", "x IS NOT TRUE",
      ** and "x IS NOT FALSE". */
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      if( (pRight = pExpr->x.pRight)->op==TK_ID ){
        int rc = resolveExprStep(pWalker, pRight);
        if( rc==WRC_Abort ) return WRC_Abort;
        if( pRight->op==TK_TRUEFALSE ){
          pExpr->op2 = pExpr->op;
          pExpr->op = TK_TRUTH;
          return WRC_Continue;
        }
................................................................................
      nLeft = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft);
      if( pExpr->op==TK_BETWEEN ){
        nRight = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr);
        if( nRight==nLeft ){
          nRight = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr);
        }
      }else{
        assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
        nRight = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->x.pRight);
      }
      if( nLeft!=nRight ){
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EQ );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_NE );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LT );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LE );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_GT );

Changes to src/select.c.

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*/
static void setJoinExpr(Expr *p, int iTable){
  while( p ){
    ExprSetProperty(p, EP_FromJoin);
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
    ExprSetVVAProperty(p, EP_NoReduce);
    p->iRightJoinTable = (i16)iTable;
    if( p->op==TK_FUNCTION && p->x.pList ){
      int i;
      for(i=0; i<p->x.pList->nExpr; i++){
        setJoinExpr(p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, iTable);
      }
    }
    setJoinExpr(p->pLeft, iTable);
    p = p->pRight;
  } 
}

/* Undo the work of setJoinExpr().  In the expression tree p, convert every
** term that is marked with EP_FromJoin and iRightJoinTable==iTable into
** an ordinary term that omits the EP_FromJoin mark.
**
................................................................................
*/
static void unsetJoinExpr(Expr *p, int iTable){
  while( p ){
    if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_FromJoin)
     && (iTable<0 || p->iRightJoinTable==iTable) ){
      ExprClearProperty(p, EP_FromJoin);
    }
    if( p->op==TK_FUNCTION && p->x.pList ){
      int i;
      for(i=0; i<p->x.pList->nExpr; i++){
        unsetJoinExpr(p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, iTable);
      }
    }
    unsetJoinExpr(p->pLeft, iTable);
    p = p->pRight;
  } 
}

/*
** This routine processes the join information for a SELECT statement.
** ON and USING clauses are converted into extra terms of the WHERE clause.
** NATURAL joins also create extra WHERE clause terms.
................................................................................
  int i;
  int nDefer = 0;
  ExprList *pExtra = 0;
  for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
    struct ExprList_item *pItem = &pEList->a[i];
    if( pItem->u.x.iOrderByCol==0 ){
      Expr *pExpr = pItem->pExpr;
      Table *pTab = pExpr->pTab;
      if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN && pExpr->iColumn>=0 && pTab && !IsVirtual(pTab)




       && (pTab->aCol[pExpr->iColumn].colFlags & COLFLAG_SORTERREF)
      ){
        int j;
        for(j=0; j<nDefer; j++){
          if( pSort->aDefer[j].iCsr==pExpr->iTable ) break;
        }
        if( j==nDefer ){
................................................................................
            int nKey = 1;
            int k;
            Index *pPk = 0;
            if( !HasRowid(pTab) ){
              pPk = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab);
              nKey = pPk->nKeyCol;
            }

            for(k=0; k<nKey; k++){
              Expr *pNew = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_COLUMN, 0, 0);
              if( pNew ){
                pNew->iTable = pExpr->iTable;

                pNew->pTab = pExpr->pTab;
                pNew->iColumn = pPk ? pPk->aiColumn[k] : -1;
                pExtra = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pExtra, pNew);
              }
            }
            pSort->aDefer[nDefer].pTab = pExpr->pTab;
            pSort->aDefer[nDefer].iCsr = pExpr->iTable;
            pSort->aDefer[nDefer].nKey = nKey;
            nDefer++;
          }
        }
        pItem->bSorterRef = 1;
      }
................................................................................
        ** This is not a problem, as the column type of "t1.col" is never
        ** used. When columnType() is called on the expression 
        ** "(SELECT t1.col)", the correct type is returned (see the TK_SELECT
        ** branch below.  */
        break;
      }

      assert( pTab && pExpr->pTab==pTab );
      if( pS ){
        /* The "table" is actually a sub-select or a view in the FROM clause
        ** of the SELECT statement. Return the declaration type and origin
        ** data for the result-set column of the sub-select.
        */
        if( iCol>=0 && iCol<pS->pEList->nExpr ){
          /* If iCol is less than zero, then the expression requests the
................................................................................
      /* The expression is a sub-select. Return the declaration type and
      ** origin info for the single column in the result set of the SELECT
      ** statement.
      */
      NameContext sNC;
      Select *pS = pExpr->x.pSelect;
      Expr *p = pS->pEList->a[0].pExpr;
      assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
      sNC.pSrcList = pS->pSrc;
      sNC.pNext = pNC;
      sNC.pParse = pNC->pParse;
      zType = columnType(&sNC, p, &zOrigDb, &zOrigTab, &zOrigCol); 
      break;
    }
#endif
................................................................................
  srcName = (db->flags & SQLITE_ShortColNames)!=0 || fullName;
  sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(v, pEList->nExpr);
  for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
    Expr *p = pEList->a[i].pExpr;

    assert( p!=0 );
    assert( p->op!=TK_AGG_COLUMN );  /* Agg processing has not run yet */
    assert( p->op!=TK_COLUMN || p->pTab!=0 ); /* Covering idx not yet coded */

    if( pEList->a[i].zName ){
      /* An AS clause always takes first priority */
      char *zName = pEList->a[i].zName;
      sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, i, COLNAME_NAME, zName, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
    }else if( srcName && p->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      char *zCol;
      int iCol = p->iColumn;

      pTab = p->pTab;
      assert( pTab!=0 );
      if( iCol<0 ) iCol = pTab->iPKey;
      assert( iCol==-1 || (iCol>=0 && iCol<pTab->nCol) );
      if( iCol<0 ){
        zCol = "rowid";
      }else{
        zCol = pTab->aCol[iCol].zName;
................................................................................
    /* Get an appropriate name for the column
    */
    if( (zName = pEList->a[i].zName)!=0 ){
      /* If the column contains an "AS <name>" phrase, use <name> as the name */
    }else{
      Expr *pColExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pEList->a[i].pExpr);
      while( pColExpr->op==TK_DOT ){

        pColExpr = pColExpr->pRight;
        assert( pColExpr!=0 );
      }
      assert( pColExpr->op!=TK_AGG_COLUMN );
      if( pColExpr->op==TK_COLUMN ){
        /* For columns use the column name name */
        int iCol = pColExpr->iColumn;


        Table *pTab = pColExpr->pTab;
        assert( pTab!=0 );
        if( iCol<0 ) iCol = pTab->iPKey;
        zName = iCol>=0 ? pTab->aCol[iCol].zName : "rowid";
      }else if( pColExpr->op==TK_ID ){
        assert( !ExprHasProperty(pColExpr, EP_IntValue) );
        zName = pColExpr->u.zToken;
      }else{
................................................................................
  }
  return sqlite3VdbeCreate(pParse);
}


/*
** Compute the iLimit and iOffset fields of the SELECT based on the
** pLimit expressions.  pLimit->pLeft and pLimit->pRight hold the expressions
** that appear in the original SQL statement after the LIMIT and OFFSET
** keywords.  Or NULL if those keywords are omitted. iLimit and iOffset 
** are the integer memory register numbers for counters used to compute 
** the limit and offset.  If there is no limit and/or offset, then 
** iLimit and iOffset are negative.
**
** This routine changes the values of iLimit and iOffset only if
** a limit or offset is defined by pLimit->pLeft and pLimit->pRight.  iLimit
** and iOffset should have been preset to appropriate default values (zero)
** prior to calling this routine.
**
** The iOffset register (if it exists) is initialized to the value
** of the OFFSET.  The iLimit register is initialized to LIMIT.  Register
** iOffset+1 is initialized to LIMIT+OFFSET.
**
................................................................................
      }
    }else{
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pLimit->pLeft, iLimit);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, iLimit); VdbeCoverage(v);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT counter"));
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IfNot, iLimit, iBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
    }
    if( pLimit->pRight ){
      p->iOffset = iOffset = ++pParse->nMem;
      pParse->nMem++;   /* Allocate an extra register for limit+offset */
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pLimit->pRight, iOffset);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, iOffset); VdbeCoverage(v);
      VdbeComment((v, "OFFSET counter"));
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OffsetLimit, iLimit, iOffset+1, iOffset);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT+OFFSET"));
    }
  }
}
................................................................................
    if( pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
      pExpr->op = TK_NULL;
    }else{
      Expr *pNew;
      Expr *pCopy = pSubst->pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr;
      Expr ifNullRow;
      assert( pSubst->pEList!=0 && pExpr->iColumn<pSubst->pEList->nExpr );
      assert( pExpr->pRight==0 );
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pCopy) ){
        sqlite3VectorErrorMsg(pSubst->pParse, pCopy);
      }else{
        sqlite3 *db = pSubst->pParse->db;
        if( pSubst->isLeftJoin && pCopy->op!=TK_COLUMN ){
          memset(&ifNullRow, 0, sizeof(ifNullRow));
          ifNullRow.op = TK_IF_NULL_ROW;
................................................................................
      }
    }
  }else{
    if( pExpr->op==TK_IF_NULL_ROW && pExpr->iTable==pSubst->iTable ){
      pExpr->iTable = pSubst->iNewTable;
    }
    pExpr->pLeft = substExpr(pSubst, pExpr->pLeft);
    pExpr->pRight = substExpr(pSubst, pExpr->pRight);
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
      substSelect(pSubst, pExpr->x.pSelect, 1);
    }else{


      substExprList(pSubst, pExpr->x.pList);







    }
  }
  return pExpr;
}
static void substExprList(
  SubstContext *pSubst, /* Description of the substitution */
  ExprList *pList       /* List to scan and in which to make substitutes */
................................................................................
  assert( pSubSrc );
  /* Prior to version 3.1.2, when LIMIT and OFFSET had to be simple constants,
  ** not arbitrary expressions, we allowed some combining of LIMIT and OFFSET
  ** because they could be computed at compile-time.  But when LIMIT and OFFSET
  ** became arbitrary expressions, we were forced to add restrictions (13)
  ** and (14). */
  if( pSub->pLimit && p->pLimit ) return 0;              /* Restriction (13) */
  if( pSub->pLimit && pSub->pLimit->pRight ) return 0;   /* Restriction (14) */


  if( (p->selFlags & SF_Compound)!=0 && pSub->pLimit ){
    return 0;                                            /* Restriction (15) */
  }
  if( pSubSrc->nSrc==0 ) return 0;                       /* Restriction (7)  */
  if( pSub->selFlags & SF_Distinct ) return 0;           /* Restriction (4)  */
  if( pSub->pLimit && (pSrc->nSrc>1 || isAgg) ){
     return 0;         /* Restrictions (8)(9) */
................................................................................
** found, add it to the pConst structure.
*/
static void findConstInWhere(WhereConst *pConst, Expr *pExpr){
  Expr *pRight, *pLeft;
  if( pExpr==0 ) return;
  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ) return;
  if( pExpr->op==TK_AND ){

    findConstInWhere(pConst, pExpr->pRight);
    findConstInWhere(pConst, pExpr->pLeft);
    return;
  }
  if( pExpr->op!=TK_EQ ) return;

  pRight = pExpr->pRight;
  pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
  assert( pRight!=0 );
  assert( pLeft!=0 );
  if( pRight->op==TK_COLUMN
   && !ExprHasProperty(pRight, EP_FixedCol)
   && sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pLeft)
   && sqlite3IsBinary(sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pConst->pParse,pLeft,pRight))
  ){
    constInsert(pConst, pRight, pLeft);
  }else
  if( pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN
   && !ExprHasProperty(pLeft, EP_FixedCol)
   && sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pRight)
   && sqlite3IsBinary(sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pConst->pParse,pLeft,pRight))
  ){
    constInsert(pConst, pLeft, pRight);
  }
}

/*
** This is a Walker expression callback.  pExpr is a candidate expression
................................................................................
  }
#endif

  if( pSubq->pLimit!=0 ){
    return 0; /* restriction (3) */
  }
  while( pWhere->op==TK_AND ){

    nChng += pushDownWhereTerms(pParse, pSubq, pWhere->pRight,
                                iCursor, isLeftJoin);
    pWhere = pWhere->pLeft;
  }
  if( isLeftJoin
   && (ExprHasProperty(pWhere,EP_FromJoin)==0
         || pWhere->iRightJoinTable!=iCursor)
  ){
................................................................................
  **
  ** The first loop just checks to see if there are any "*" operators
  ** that need expanding.
  */
  for(k=0; k<pEList->nExpr; k++){
    pE = pEList->a[k].pExpr;
    if( pE->op==TK_ASTERISK ) break;
    assert( pE->op!=TK_DOT || pE->pRight!=0 );
    assert( pE->op!=TK_DOT || (pE->pLeft!=0 && pE->pLeft->op==TK_ID) );
    if( pE->op==TK_DOT && pE->pRight->op==TK_ASTERISK ) break;
    elistFlags |= pE->flags;
  }
  if( k<pEList->nExpr ){
    /*
    ** If we get here it means the result set contains one or more "*"
    ** operators that need to be expanded.  Loop through each expression
    ** in the result set and expand them one by one.
................................................................................
    int flags = pParse->db->flags;
    int longNames = (flags & SQLITE_FullColNames)!=0
                      && (flags & SQLITE_ShortColNames)==0;

    for(k=0; k<pEList->nExpr; k++){
      pE = a[k].pExpr;
      elistFlags |= pE->flags;
      pRight = pE->pRight;
      assert( pE->op!=TK_DOT || pRight!=0 );
      if( pE->op!=TK_ASTERISK
       && (pE->op!=TK_DOT || pRight->op!=TK_ASTERISK)
      ){
        /* This particular expression does not need to be expanded.
        */
        pNew = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pNew, a[k].pExpr);
................................................................................
         && pAggInfo->aFunc[i].iMem<=pAggInfo->mxReg );
  }
#endif
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Null, 0, pAggInfo->mnReg, pAggInfo->mxReg);
  for(pFunc=pAggInfo->aFunc, i=0; i<pAggInfo->nFunc; i++, pFunc++){
    if( pFunc->iDistinct>=0 ){
      Expr *pE = pFunc->pExpr;
      assert( !ExprHasProperty(pE, EP_xIsSelect) );
      if( pE->x.pList==0 || pE->x.pList->nExpr!=1 ){
        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "DISTINCT aggregates must have exactly one "
           "argument");
        pFunc->iDistinct = -1;
      }else{
        KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = sqlite3KeyInfoFromExprList(pParse, pE->x.pList,0,0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, pFunc->iDistinct, 0, 0,
                          (char*)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO);
................................................................................
*/
static void finalizeAggFunctions(Parse *pParse, AggInfo *pAggInfo){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  int i;
  struct AggInfo_func *pF;
  for(i=0, pF=pAggInfo->aFunc; i<pAggInfo->nFunc; i++, pF++){
    ExprList *pList = pF->pExpr->x.pList;
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pF->pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );

    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_AggFinal, pF->iMem, pList ? pList->nExpr : 0);
    sqlite3VdbeAppendP4(v, pF->pFunc, P4_FUNCDEF);
  }
}


/*
................................................................................

  pAggInfo->directMode = 1;
  for(i=0, pF=pAggInfo->aFunc; i<pAggInfo->nFunc; i++, pF++){
    int nArg;
    int addrNext = 0;
    int regAgg;
    ExprList *pList = pF->pExpr->x.pList;
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pF->pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
    if( pList ){
      nArg = pList->nExpr;
      regAgg = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nArg);
      sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(pParse, pList, regAgg, 0, SQLITE_ECEL_DUP);
    }else{
      nArg = 0;
      regAgg = 0;
................................................................................
    sAggInfo.nAccumulator = sAggInfo.nColumn;
    if( p->pGroupBy==0 && p->pHaving==0 && sAggInfo.nFunc==1 ){
      minMaxFlag = minMaxQuery(db, sAggInfo.aFunc[0].pExpr, &pMinMaxOrderBy);
    }else{
      minMaxFlag = WHERE_ORDERBY_NORMAL;
    }
    for(i=0; i<sAggInfo.nFunc; i++){
      assert( !ExprHasProperty(sAggInfo.aFunc[i].pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
      sNC.ncFlags |= NC_InAggFunc;
      sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggList(&sNC, sAggInfo.aFunc[i].pExpr->x.pList);
      sNC.ncFlags &= ~NC_InAggFunc;

    }
    sAggInfo.mxReg = pParse->nMem;
    if( db->mallocFailed ) goto select_end;
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
    if( sqlite3SelectTrace & 0x400 ){
      int ii;
      SELECTTRACE(0x400,pParse,p,("After aggregate analysis:\n"));







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...
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...
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...
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....
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....
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....
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....
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....
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....
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....
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....
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....
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....
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....
4923
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4928
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4930
4931
4932
4933
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
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....
4943
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4946
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4948
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4951
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4955
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4957
....
5263
5264
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....
5287
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5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
....
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5321
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....
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6221
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6224
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6226
*/
static void setJoinExpr(Expr *p, int iTable){
  while( p ){
    ExprSetProperty(p, EP_FromJoin);
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
    ExprSetVVAProperty(p, EP_NoReduce);
    p->iRightJoinTable = (i16)iTable;
    if( p->op==TK_FUNCTION && p->eX==EX_List ){
      int i;
      for(i=0; i<p->x.pList->nExpr; i++){
        setJoinExpr(p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, iTable);
      }
    }
    setJoinExpr(p->pLeft, iTable);
    p = p->eX==EX_Right ? p->x.pRight : 0;
  } 
}

/* Undo the work of setJoinExpr().  In the expression tree p, convert every
** term that is marked with EP_FromJoin and iRightJoinTable==iTable into
** an ordinary term that omits the EP_FromJoin mark.
**
................................................................................
*/
static void unsetJoinExpr(Expr *p, int iTable){
  while( p ){
    if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_FromJoin)
     && (iTable<0 || p->iRightJoinTable==iTable) ){
      ExprClearProperty(p, EP_FromJoin);
    }
    if( p->op==TK_FUNCTION && p->eX==EX_List ){
      int i;
      for(i=0; i<p->x.pList->nExpr; i++){
        unsetJoinExpr(p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, iTable);
      }
    }
    unsetJoinExpr(p->pLeft, iTable);
    p = p->eX==EX_Right ? p->x.pRight : 0;
  } 
}

/*
** This routine processes the join information for a SELECT statement.
** ON and USING clauses are converted into extra terms of the WHERE clause.
** NATURAL joins also create extra WHERE clause terms.
................................................................................
  int i;
  int nDefer = 0;
  ExprList *pExtra = 0;
  for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
    struct ExprList_item *pItem = &pEList->a[i];
    if( pItem->u.x.iOrderByCol==0 ){
      Expr *pExpr = pItem->pExpr;
      Table *pTab;
      if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN
       && pExpr->iColumn>=0
       && ALWAYS(pExpr->eX==EX_Tab)
       && (pTab = pExpr->x.pTab)!=0
       && !IsVirtual(pTab)
       && (pTab->aCol[pExpr->iColumn].colFlags & COLFLAG_SORTERREF)
      ){
        int j;
        for(j=0; j<nDefer; j++){
          if( pSort->aDefer[j].iCsr==pExpr->iTable ) break;
        }
        if( j==nDefer ){
................................................................................
            int nKey = 1;
            int k;
            Index *pPk = 0;
            if( !HasRowid(pTab) ){
              pPk = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab);
              nKey = pPk->nKeyCol;
            }
            assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Tab );
            for(k=0; k<nKey; k++){
              Expr *pNew = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_COLUMN, 0, 0);
              if( pNew ){
                pNew->iTable = pExpr->iTable;
                pNew->eX = EX_Tab;
                pNew->x.pTab = pExpr->x.pTab;
                pNew->iColumn = pPk ? pPk->aiColumn[k] : -1;
                pExtra = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pExtra, pNew);
              }
            }
            pSort->aDefer[nDefer].pTab = pExpr->x.pTab;
            pSort->aDefer[nDefer].iCsr = pExpr->iTable;
            pSort->aDefer[nDefer].nKey = nKey;
            nDefer++;
          }
        }
        pItem->bSorterRef = 1;
      }
................................................................................
        ** This is not a problem, as the column type of "t1.col" is never
        ** used. When columnType() is called on the expression 
        ** "(SELECT t1.col)", the correct type is returned (see the TK_SELECT
        ** branch below.  */
        break;
      }

      assert( pTab && pExpr->eX==EX_Tab && pExpr->x.pTab==pTab );
      if( pS ){
        /* The "table" is actually a sub-select or a view in the FROM clause
        ** of the SELECT statement. Return the declaration type and origin
        ** data for the result-set column of the sub-select.
        */
        if( iCol>=0 && iCol<pS->pEList->nExpr ){
          /* If iCol is less than zero, then the expression requests the
................................................................................
      /* The expression is a sub-select. Return the declaration type and
      ** origin info for the single column in the result set of the SELECT
      ** statement.
      */
      NameContext sNC;
      Select *pS = pExpr->x.pSelect;
      Expr *p = pS->pEList->a[0].pExpr;
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Select );
      sNC.pSrcList = pS->pSrc;
      sNC.pNext = pNC;
      sNC.pParse = pNC->pParse;
      zType = columnType(&sNC, p, &zOrigDb, &zOrigTab, &zOrigCol); 
      break;
    }
#endif
................................................................................
  srcName = (db->flags & SQLITE_ShortColNames)!=0 || fullName;
  sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(v, pEList->nExpr);
  for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
    Expr *p = pEList->a[i].pExpr;

    assert( p!=0 );
    assert( p->op!=TK_AGG_COLUMN );  /* Agg processing has not run yet */
    /* Covering idx not yet coded: */
    assert( p->op!=TK_COLUMN || (p->eX==EX_Tab && p->x.pTab!=0) );
    if( pEList->a[i].zName ){
      /* An AS clause always takes first priority */
      char *zName = pEList->a[i].zName;
      sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, i, COLNAME_NAME, zName, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
    }else if( srcName && p->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      char *zCol;
      int iCol = p->iColumn;
      assert( p->eX==EX_Tab );
      pTab = p->x.pTab;
      assert( pTab!=0 );
      if( iCol<0 ) iCol = pTab->iPKey;
      assert( iCol==-1 || (iCol>=0 && iCol<pTab->nCol) );
      if( iCol<0 ){
        zCol = "rowid";
      }else{
        zCol = pTab->aCol[iCol].zName;
................................................................................
    /* Get an appropriate name for the column
    */
    if( (zName = pEList->a[i].zName)!=0 ){
      /* If the column contains an "AS <name>" phrase, use <name> as the name */
    }else{
      Expr *pColExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pEList->a[i].pExpr);
      while( pColExpr->op==TK_DOT ){
        assert( pColExpr->eX==EX_Right );
        pColExpr = pColExpr->x.pRight;
        assert( pColExpr!=0 );
      }
      assert( pColExpr->op!=TK_AGG_COLUMN );
      if( pColExpr->op==TK_COLUMN ){
        /* For columns use the column name name */
        int iCol = pColExpr->iColumn;
        Table *pTab;
        assert( pColExpr->eX==EX_Tab );
        pTab = pColExpr->x.pTab;
        assert( pTab!=0 );
        if( iCol<0 ) iCol = pTab->iPKey;
        zName = iCol>=0 ? pTab->aCol[iCol].zName : "rowid";
      }else if( pColExpr->op==TK_ID ){
        assert( !ExprHasProperty(pColExpr, EP_IntValue) );
        zName = pColExpr->u.zToken;
      }else{
................................................................................
  }
  return sqlite3VdbeCreate(pParse);
}


/*
** Compute the iLimit and iOffset fields of the SELECT based on the
** pLimit expressions.  pLimit->pLeft and pLimit->x,pRight hold the expressions
** that appear in the original SQL statement after the LIMIT and OFFSET
** keywords.  Or NULL if those keywords are omitted. iLimit and iOffset 
** are the integer memory register numbers for counters used to compute 
** the limit and offset.  If there is no limit and/or offset, then 
** iLimit and iOffset are negative.
**
** This routine changes the values of iLimit and iOffset only if
** a limit or offset is defined by pLimit->pLeft and pLimit->x.pRight.  iLimit
** and iOffset should have been preset to appropriate default values (zero)
** prior to calling this routine.
**
** The iOffset register (if it exists) is initialized to the value
** of the OFFSET.  The iLimit register is initialized to LIMIT.  Register
** iOffset+1 is initialized to LIMIT+OFFSET.
**
................................................................................
      }
    }else{
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pLimit->pLeft, iLimit);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, iLimit); VdbeCoverage(v);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT counter"));
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IfNot, iLimit, iBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
    }
    if( pLimit->eX==EX_Right ){
      p->iOffset = iOffset = ++pParse->nMem;
      pParse->nMem++;   /* Allocate an extra register for limit+offset */
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pLimit->x.pRight, iOffset);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, iOffset); VdbeCoverage(v);
      VdbeComment((v, "OFFSET counter"));
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OffsetLimit, iLimit, iOffset+1, iOffset);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT+OFFSET"));
    }
  }
}
................................................................................
    if( pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
      pExpr->op = TK_NULL;
    }else{
      Expr *pNew;
      Expr *pCopy = pSubst->pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr;
      Expr ifNullRow;
      assert( pSubst->pEList!=0 && pExpr->iColumn<pSubst->pEList->nExpr );
      assert( pExpr->eX!=EX_Right );
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pCopy) ){
        sqlite3VectorErrorMsg(pSubst->pParse, pCopy);
      }else{
        sqlite3 *db = pSubst->pParse->db;
        if( pSubst->isLeftJoin && pCopy->op!=TK_COLUMN ){
          memset(&ifNullRow, 0, sizeof(ifNullRow));
          ifNullRow.op = TK_IF_NULL_ROW;
................................................................................
      }
    }
  }else{
    if( pExpr->op==TK_IF_NULL_ROW && pExpr->iTable==pSubst->iTable ){
      pExpr->iTable = pSubst->iNewTable;
    }
    pExpr->pLeft = substExpr(pSubst, pExpr->pLeft);
    switch( pExpr->eX ){
      case EX_Select: {
        substSelect(pSubst, pExpr->x.pSelect, 1);
        break;
      }
      case EX_List: {
        substExprList(pSubst, pExpr->x.pList);
        break;
      }
      case EX_Right: {
        pExpr->x.pRight = substExpr(pSubst, pExpr->x.pRight);
        if( pExpr->x.pRight==0 ) pExpr->eX = EX_None;
        break;
      }
    }
  }
  return pExpr;
}
static void substExprList(
  SubstContext *pSubst, /* Description of the substitution */
  ExprList *pList       /* List to scan and in which to make substitutes */
................................................................................
  assert( pSubSrc );
  /* Prior to version 3.1.2, when LIMIT and OFFSET had to be simple constants,
  ** not arbitrary expressions, we allowed some combining of LIMIT and OFFSET
  ** because they could be computed at compile-time.  But when LIMIT and OFFSET
  ** became arbitrary expressions, we were forced to add restrictions (13)
  ** and (14). */
  if( pSub->pLimit && p->pLimit ) return 0;              /* Restriction (13) */
  if( pSub->pLimit && pSub->pLimit->eX==EX_Right ){
    return 0;                                            /* Restriction (14) */
  }
  if( (p->selFlags & SF_Compound)!=0 && pSub->pLimit ){
    return 0;                                            /* Restriction (15) */
  }
  if( pSubSrc->nSrc==0 ) return 0;                       /* Restriction (7)  */
  if( pSub->selFlags & SF_Distinct ) return 0;           /* Restriction (4)  */
  if( pSub->pLimit && (pSrc->nSrc>1 || isAgg) ){
     return 0;         /* Restrictions (8)(9) */
................................................................................
** found, add it to the pConst structure.
*/
static void findConstInWhere(WhereConst *pConst, Expr *pExpr){
  Expr *pRight, *pLeft;
  if( pExpr==0 ) return;
  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ) return;
  if( pExpr->op==TK_AND ){
    assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
    findConstInWhere(pConst, pExpr->x.pRight);
    findConstInWhere(pConst, pExpr->pLeft);
    return;
  }
  if( pExpr->op!=TK_EQ ) return;
  assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
  pRight = pExpr->x.pRight;
  pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
  assert( pRight!=0 );
  assert( pLeft!=0 );
  if( pRight->op==TK_COLUMN
   && !ExprHasProperty(pRight, EP_FixedCol)
   && sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pLeft)
   && sqlite3IsBinary(sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(pConst->pParse,pLeft,pRight))
  ){
    constInsert(pConst, pRight, pLeft);
  }else
  if( pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN
   && !ExprHasProperty(pLeft, EP_FixedCol)
   && sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pRight)
   && sqlite3IsBinary(sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(pConst->pParse,pLeft,pRight))
  ){
    constInsert(pConst, pLeft, pRight);
  }
}

/*
** This is a Walker expression callback.  pExpr is a candidate expression
................................................................................
  }
#endif

  if( pSubq->pLimit!=0 ){
    return 0; /* restriction (3) */
  }
  while( pWhere->op==TK_AND ){
    assert( pWhere->eX==EX_Right );
    nChng += pushDownWhereTerms(pParse, pSubq, pWhere->x.pRight,
                                iCursor, isLeftJoin);
    pWhere = pWhere->pLeft;
  }
  if( isLeftJoin
   && (ExprHasProperty(pWhere,EP_FromJoin)==0
         || pWhere->iRightJoinTable!=iCursor)
  ){
................................................................................
  **
  ** The first loop just checks to see if there are any "*" operators
  ** that need expanding.
  */
  for(k=0; k<pEList->nExpr; k++){
    pE = pEList->a[k].pExpr;
    if( pE->op==TK_ASTERISK ) break;
    assert( pE->op!=TK_DOT || pE->eX==EX_Right );
    assert( pE->op!=TK_DOT || (pE->pLeft!=0 && pE->pLeft->op==TK_ID) );
    if( pE->op==TK_DOT && pE->x.pRight->op==TK_ASTERISK ) break;
    elistFlags |= pE->flags;
  }
  if( k<pEList->nExpr ){
    /*
    ** If we get here it means the result set contains one or more "*"
    ** operators that need to be expanded.  Loop through each expression
    ** in the result set and expand them one by one.
................................................................................
    int flags = pParse->db->flags;
    int longNames = (flags & SQLITE_FullColNames)!=0
                      && (flags & SQLITE_ShortColNames)==0;

    for(k=0; k<pEList->nExpr; k++){
      pE = a[k].pExpr;
      elistFlags |= pE->flags;
      pRight = pE->eX==EX_Right ? pE->x.pRight : 0;
      assert( pE->op!=TK_DOT || pRight!=0 );
      if( pE->op!=TK_ASTERISK
       && (pE->op!=TK_DOT || pRight->op!=TK_ASTERISK)
      ){
        /* This particular expression does not need to be expanded.
        */
        pNew = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pNew, a[k].pExpr);
................................................................................
         && pAggInfo->aFunc[i].iMem<=pAggInfo->mxReg );
  }
#endif
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Null, 0, pAggInfo->mnReg, pAggInfo->mxReg);
  for(pFunc=pAggInfo->aFunc, i=0; i<pAggInfo->nFunc; i++, pFunc++){
    if( pFunc->iDistinct>=0 ){
      Expr *pE = pFunc->pExpr;
      assert( pE->eX==EX_List || pE->eX==EX_None );
      if( pE->eX==EX_None || pE->x.pList->nExpr!=1 ){
        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "DISTINCT aggregates must have exactly one "
           "argument");
        pFunc->iDistinct = -1;
      }else{
        KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = sqlite3KeyInfoFromExprList(pParse, pE->x.pList,0,0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, pFunc->iDistinct, 0, 0,
                          (char*)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO);
................................................................................
*/
static void finalizeAggFunctions(Parse *pParse, AggInfo *pAggInfo){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  int i;
  struct AggInfo_func *pF;
  for(i=0, pF=pAggInfo->aFunc; i<pAggInfo->nFunc; i++, pF++){
    ExprList *pList = pF->pExpr->x.pList;
    assert( pF->pExpr->eX==EX_List || pF->pExpr->eX==EX_None );
    assert( pF->pExpr->eX==EX_List || pList==0 );
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_AggFinal, pF->iMem, pList ? pList->nExpr : 0);
    sqlite3VdbeAppendP4(v, pF->pFunc, P4_FUNCDEF);
  }
}


/*
................................................................................

  pAggInfo->directMode = 1;
  for(i=0, pF=pAggInfo->aFunc; i<pAggInfo->nFunc; i++, pF++){
    int nArg;
    int addrNext = 0;
    int regAgg;
    ExprList *pList = pF->pExpr->x.pList;
    assert( pF->pExpr->eX==EX_List || pF->pExpr->eX==EX_None );
    if( pList ){
      nArg = pList->nExpr;
      regAgg = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nArg);
      sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(pParse, pList, regAgg, 0, SQLITE_ECEL_DUP);
    }else{
      nArg = 0;
      regAgg = 0;
................................................................................
    sAggInfo.nAccumulator = sAggInfo.nColumn;
    if( p->pGroupBy==0 && p->pHaving==0 && sAggInfo.nFunc==1 ){
      minMaxFlag = minMaxQuery(db, sAggInfo.aFunc[0].pExpr, &pMinMaxOrderBy);
    }else{
      minMaxFlag = WHERE_ORDERBY_NORMAL;
    }
    for(i=0; i<sAggInfo.nFunc; i++){
      if( sAggInfo.aFunc[i].pExpr->eX==EX_List ){
        sNC.ncFlags |= NC_InAggFunc;
        sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggList(&sNC, sAggInfo.aFunc[i].pExpr->x.pList);
        sNC.ncFlags &= ~NC_InAggFunc;
      }
    }
    sAggInfo.mxReg = pParse->nMem;
    if( db->mallocFailed ) goto select_end;
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
    if( sqlite3SelectTrace & 0x400 ){
      int ii;
      SELECTTRACE(0x400,pParse,p,("After aggregate analysis:\n"));

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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2422
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....
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....
4381
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4384
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4386
4387
4388

4389
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4391
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4395
** are contained within the same memory allocation.  Note, however, that
** the subtrees in Expr.x.pList or Expr.x.pSelect are always separately
** allocated, regardless of whether or not EP_Reduced is set.
*/
struct Expr {
  u8 op;                 /* Operation performed by this node */
  char affinity;         /* The affinity of the column or 0 if not a column */


  u32 flags;             /* Various flags.  EP_* See below */
  union {
    char *zToken;          /* Token value. Zero terminated and dequoted */
    int iValue;            /* Non-negative integer value if EP_IntValue */
  } u;

  /* If the EP_TokenOnly flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.
  *********************************************************************/

  Expr *pLeft;           /* Left subnode */
  Expr *pRight;          /* Right subnode */
  union {

    ExprList *pList;     /* op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT, CASE, FUNCTION, BETWEEN */
    Select *pSelect;     /* EP_xIsSelect and op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT */


  } x;

  /* If the EP_Reduced flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.
  *********************************************************************/

................................................................................
                         ** TK_SELECT_COLUMN: column of the result vector */
  i16 iAgg;              /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
  i16 iRightJoinTable;   /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
  u8 op2;                /* TK_REGISTER: original value of Expr.op
                         ** TK_COLUMN: the value of p5 for OP_Column
                         ** TK_AGG_FUNCTION: nesting depth */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;     /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */
  Table *pTab;           /* Table for TK_COLUMN expressions.  Can be NULL
                         ** for a column of an index on an expression */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
  Window *pWin;          /* Window definition for window functions */
#endif
};















/*
** The following are the meanings of bits in the Expr.flags field.
*/
#define EP_FromJoin  0x000001 /* Originates in ON/USING clause of outer join */
#define EP_Agg       0x000002 /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
#define EP_HasFunc   0x000004 /* Contains one or more functions of any kind */
#define EP_FixedCol  0x000008 /* TK_Column with a known fixed value */
................................................................................
#define EP_Distinct  0x000010 /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
#define EP_VarSelect 0x000020 /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
#define EP_DblQuoted 0x000040 /* token.z was originally in "..." */
#define EP_InfixFunc 0x000080 /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
#define EP_Collate   0x000100 /* Tree contains a TK_COLLATE operator */
#define EP_Generic   0x000200 /* Ignore COLLATE or affinity on this tree */
#define EP_IntValue  0x000400 /* Integer value contained in u.iValue */
#define EP_xIsSelect 0x000800 /* x.pSelect is valid (otherwise x.pList is) */
#define EP_Skip      0x001000 /* COLLATE, AS, or UNLIKELY */
#define EP_Reduced   0x002000 /* Expr struct EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_TokenOnly 0x004000 /* Expr struct EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_Static    0x008000 /* Held in memory not obtained from malloc() */
#define EP_MemToken  0x010000 /* Need to sqlite3DbFree() Expr.zToken */
#define EP_NoReduce  0x020000 /* Cannot EXPRDUP_REDUCE this Expr */
#define EP_Unlikely  0x040000 /* unlikely() or likelihood() function */
................................................................................
int sqlite3NoTempsInRange(Parse*,int,int);
#endif
Expr *sqlite3ExprAlloc(sqlite3*,int,const Token*,int);
Expr *sqlite3Expr(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
void sqlite3ExprAttachSubtrees(sqlite3*,Expr*,Expr*,Expr*);
Expr *sqlite3PExpr(Parse*, int, Expr*, Expr*);
void sqlite3PExprAddSelect(Parse*, Expr*, Select*);


Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(sqlite3*,Expr*, Expr*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*, int);
void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*, u32);
void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);

ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(Parse*,ExprList*,IdList*,Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetName(Parse*,ExprList*,Token*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(Parse*,ExprList*,const char*,const char*);
void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
u32 sqlite3ExprListFlags(const ExprList*);
................................................................................
FuncDef *sqlite3VtabOverloadFunction(sqlite3 *,FuncDef*, int nArg, Expr*);
sqlite3_int64 sqlite3StmtCurrentTime(sqlite3_context*);
int sqlite3VdbeParameterIndex(Vdbe*, const char*, int);
int sqlite3TransferBindings(sqlite3_stmt *, sqlite3_stmt *);
void sqlite3ParserReset(Parse*);
int sqlite3Reprepare(Vdbe*);
void sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(Parse*, ExprList*, const char*);
CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(Parse *, Expr *, Expr *);

int sqlite3TempInMemory(const sqlite3*);
const char *sqlite3JournalModename(int);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WAL
  int sqlite3Checkpoint(sqlite3*, int, int, int*, int*);
  int sqlite3WalDefaultHook(void*,sqlite3*,const char*,int);
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CTE







>
>












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>


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>
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2415
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2434
2435

2436
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2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
....
2459
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2464
2465


2466
2467
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2471
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2477
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2487
2488
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2491
....
2492
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2495
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2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
....
3806
3807
3808
3809
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3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
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3820
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3822
3823
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3825
3826
....
4400
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415
** are contained within the same memory allocation.  Note, however, that
** the subtrees in Expr.x.pList or Expr.x.pSelect are always separately
** allocated, regardless of whether or not EP_Reduced is set.
*/
struct Expr {
  u8 op;                 /* Operation performed by this node */
  char affinity;         /* The affinity of the column or 0 if not a column */
  u8 eV;                 /* Which element of v-union is used */
  u8 eX;                 /* Which element of x-union is used */
  u32 flags;             /* Various flags.  EP_* See below */
  union {
    char *zToken;          /* Token value. Zero terminated and dequoted */
    int iValue;            /* Non-negative integer value if EP_IntValue */
  } u;

  /* If the EP_TokenOnly flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.
  *********************************************************************/

  Expr *pLeft;           /* Left subnode */

  union {
    Expr *pRight;        /* Right subnode */
    ExprList *pList;     /* op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT, CASE, FUNCTION, BETWEEN */
    Select *pSelect;     /* EP_xIsSelect and op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT */
    Table *pTab;         /* Table for TK_COLUMN expressions. Can be NULL
                         ** for a column of an index on an expression */
  } x;

  /* If the EP_Reduced flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.
  *********************************************************************/

................................................................................
                         ** TK_SELECT_COLUMN: column of the result vector */
  i16 iAgg;              /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
  i16 iRightJoinTable;   /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
  u8 op2;                /* TK_REGISTER: original value of Expr.op
                         ** TK_COLUMN: the value of p5 for OP_Column
                         ** TK_AGG_FUNCTION: nesting depth */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;     /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */


#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
  Window *pWin;          /* Window definition for window functions */
#endif
};

/*
** Allowed values for the Expr.eV and Expr.eX fields:
*/
#define EV_None     0    /* Expr.v is not used */
#define EV_Left     1    /* Expr.v.pLeft */
#define EV_Vector   2    /* Expr.v.pVector */
#define EV_Win      3    /* Expr.v.pWin */

#define EX_None     0    /* Expr.x is not used */
#define EX_Right    1    /* Expr.x.pRight */
#define EX_List     2    /* Expr.x.pList */
#define EX_Select   3    /* Expr.x.pSelect */
#define EX_Tab      4    /* Expr.x.pTab */

/*
** The following are the meanings of bits in the Expr.flags field.
*/
#define EP_FromJoin  0x000001 /* Originates in ON/USING clause of outer join */
#define EP_Agg       0x000002 /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
#define EP_HasFunc   0x000004 /* Contains one or more functions of any kind */
#define EP_FixedCol  0x000008 /* TK_Column with a known fixed value */
................................................................................
#define EP_Distinct  0x000010 /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
#define EP_VarSelect 0x000020 /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
#define EP_DblQuoted 0x000040 /* token.z was originally in "..." */
#define EP_InfixFunc 0x000080 /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
#define EP_Collate   0x000100 /* Tree contains a TK_COLLATE operator */
#define EP_Generic   0x000200 /* Ignore COLLATE or affinity on this tree */
#define EP_IntValue  0x000400 /* Integer value contained in u.iValue */
/*                   0x000800 -- Available for reuse */
#define EP_Skip      0x001000 /* COLLATE, AS, or UNLIKELY */
#define EP_Reduced   0x002000 /* Expr struct EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_TokenOnly 0x004000 /* Expr struct EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_Static    0x008000 /* Held in memory not obtained from malloc() */
#define EP_MemToken  0x010000 /* Need to sqlite3DbFree() Expr.zToken */
#define EP_NoReduce  0x020000 /* Cannot EXPRDUP_REDUCE this Expr */
#define EP_Unlikely  0x040000 /* unlikely() or likelihood() function */
................................................................................
int sqlite3NoTempsInRange(Parse*,int,int);
#endif
Expr *sqlite3ExprAlloc(sqlite3*,int,const Token*,int);
Expr *sqlite3Expr(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
void sqlite3ExprAttachSubtrees(sqlite3*,Expr*,Expr*,Expr*);
Expr *sqlite3PExpr(Parse*, int, Expr*, Expr*);
void sqlite3PExprAddSelect(Parse*, Expr*, Select*);
void sqlite3PExprAddExprList(Parse*, Expr*, ExprList*);
void sqlite3ExprAddTab(sqlite3*, Expr*, Table*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(sqlite3*,Expr*, Expr*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*, int);
void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*, u32);
void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprClearXUnion(sqlite3*,Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(Parse*,ExprList*,IdList*,Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetName(Parse*,ExprList*,Token*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(Parse*,ExprList*,const char*,const char*);
void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
u32 sqlite3ExprListFlags(const ExprList*);
................................................................................
FuncDef *sqlite3VtabOverloadFunction(sqlite3 *,FuncDef*, int nArg, Expr*);
sqlite3_int64 sqlite3StmtCurrentTime(sqlite3_context*);
int sqlite3VdbeParameterIndex(Vdbe*, const char*, int);
int sqlite3TransferBindings(sqlite3_stmt *, sqlite3_stmt *);
void sqlite3ParserReset(Parse*);
int sqlite3Reprepare(Vdbe*);
void sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(Parse*, ExprList*, const char*);
CollSeq *sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(Parse*,Expr*,Expr*);
CollSeq *sqlite3ComparisonExprCollSeq(Parse*,Expr*);
int sqlite3TempInMemory(const sqlite3*);
const char *sqlite3JournalModename(int);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WAL
  int sqlite3Checkpoint(sqlite3*, int, int, int*, int*);
  int sqlite3WalDefaultHook(void*,sqlite3*,const char*,int);
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CTE

Changes to src/treeview.c.

234
235
236
237
238
239
240
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242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
...
464
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467
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469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
...
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535

536
537



538


539
540
541
542
543
544
545
...
592
593
594
595
596
597
598

599
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604
605
606
...
617
618
619
620
621
622
623

624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
    }
#endif
    if( p->pOrderBy ){
      sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, p->pOrderBy, (n--)>0, "ORDERBY");
    }
    if( p->pLimit ){
      sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, "LIMIT", (n--)>0);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, p->pLimit->pLeft, p->pLimit->pRight!=0);
      if( p->pLimit->pRight ){
        sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, "OFFSET", (n--)>0);
        sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, p->pLimit->pRight, 0);
        sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
      }
      sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
    if( p->pPrior ){
      const char *zOp = "UNION";
      switch( p->op ){
................................................................................

    case TK_TRUTH: {
      int x;
      const char *azOp[] = {
         "IS-FALSE", "IS-TRUE", "IS-NOT-FALSE", "IS-NOT-TRUE"
      };
      assert( pExpr->op2==TK_IS || pExpr->op2==TK_ISNOT );
      assert( pExpr->pRight );
      assert( pExpr->pRight->op==TK_TRUEFALSE );
      x = (pExpr->op2==TK_ISNOT)*2 + sqlite3ExprTruthValue(pExpr->pRight);
      zUniOp = azOp[x];
      break;
    }

    case TK_SPAN: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "SPAN %Q", pExpr->u.zToken);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
................................................................................
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "SELECT-expr flags=0x%x", pExpr->flags);
      sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pExpr->x.pSelect, 0);
      break;
    }
    case TK_IN: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "IN flags=0x%x", pExpr->flags);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 1);
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){

        sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pExpr->x.pSelect, 0);
      }else{



        sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, pExpr->x.pList, 0, 0);


      }
      break;
    }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

    /*
    **    x BETWEEN y AND z
................................................................................
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "RAISE %s(%Q)", zType, pExpr->u.zToken);
      break;
    }
#endif
    case TK_MATCH: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "MATCH {%d:%d}%s",
                          pExpr->iTable, pExpr->iColumn, zFlgs);

      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pRight, 0);
      break;
    }
    case TK_VECTOR: {
      sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(pView, pExpr->x.pList, "VECTOR");
      break;
    }
    case TK_SELECT_COLUMN: {
................................................................................
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "op=%d", pExpr->op);
      break;
    }
  }
  if( zBinOp ){
    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s%s", zBinOp, zFlgs);
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 1);

    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pRight, 0);
  }else if( zUniOp ){
    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s%s", zUniOp, zFlgs);
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
  }
  sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
}








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251
...
464
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468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
...
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537

538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
...
597
598
599
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606
607
608
609
610
611
612
...
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
    }
#endif
    if( p->pOrderBy ){
      sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, p->pOrderBy, (n--)>0, "ORDERBY");
    }
    if( p->pLimit ){
      sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, "LIMIT", (n--)>0);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, p->pLimit->pLeft, p->pLimit->eX==EX_Right);
      if( p->pLimit->eX==EX_Right ){
        sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, "OFFSET", (n--)>0);
        sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, p->pLimit->x.pRight, 0);
        sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
      }
      sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
    if( p->pPrior ){
      const char *zOp = "UNION";
      switch( p->op ){
................................................................................

    case TK_TRUTH: {
      int x;
      const char *azOp[] = {
         "IS-FALSE", "IS-TRUE", "IS-NOT-FALSE", "IS-NOT-TRUE"
      };
      assert( pExpr->op2==TK_IS || pExpr->op2==TK_ISNOT );
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      assert( pExpr->x.pRight->op==TK_TRUEFALSE );
      x = (pExpr->op2==TK_ISNOT)*2 + sqlite3ExprTruthValue(pExpr->x.pRight);
      zUniOp = azOp[x];
      break;
    }

    case TK_SPAN: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "SPAN %Q", pExpr->u.zToken);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
................................................................................
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "SELECT-expr flags=0x%x", pExpr->flags);
      sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pExpr->x.pSelect, 0);
      break;
    }
    case TK_IN: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "IN flags=0x%x", pExpr->flags);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 1);
      switch( pExpr->eX ){
        case EX_Select: {
          sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pExpr->x.pSelect, 0);

          break;
        }
        case EX_List: {
          sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, pExpr->x.pList, 0, 0);
          break;
        }
      }
      break;
    }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

    /*
    **    x BETWEEN y AND z
................................................................................
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "RAISE %s(%Q)", zType, pExpr->u.zToken);
      break;
    }
#endif
    case TK_MATCH: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "MATCH {%d:%d}%s",
                          pExpr->iTable, pExpr->iColumn, zFlgs);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->x.pRight, 0);
      break;
    }
    case TK_VECTOR: {
      sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(pView, pExpr->x.pList, "VECTOR");
      break;
    }
    case TK_SELECT_COLUMN: {
................................................................................
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "op=%d", pExpr->op);
      break;
    }
  }
  if( zBinOp ){
    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s%s", zBinOp, zFlgs);
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 1);
    assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->x.pRight, 0);
  }else if( zUniOp ){
    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s%s", zUniOp, zFlgs);
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
  }
  sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
}

Changes to src/vdbeaux.c.

1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
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      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%s", "expr");
      break;
  }

  if( zOp ){
    sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%s(", zOp);
    displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->pLeft);
    if( pExpr->pRight ){
      sqlite3_str_append(p, ",", 1);
      displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->pRight);
    }
    sqlite3_str_append(p, ")", 1);
  }
}
#endif /* VDBE_DISPLAY_P4 && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS) */









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1371
1372
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1378
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1381
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      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%s", "expr");
      break;
  }

  if( zOp ){
    sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%s(", zOp);
    displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->pLeft);
    if( pExpr->eX==EX_Right ){
      sqlite3_str_append(p, ",", 1);
      displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->x.pRight);
    }
    sqlite3_str_append(p, ")", 1);
  }
}
#endif /* VDBE_DISPLAY_P4 && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS) */


Changes to src/vtab.c.

1049
1050
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1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
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1060
1061
1062
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  void *pArg = 0;
  FuncDef *pNew;
  int rc = 0;

  /* Check to see the left operand is a column in a virtual table */
  if( NEVER(pExpr==0) ) return pDef;
  if( pExpr->op!=TK_COLUMN ) return pDef;
  pTab = pExpr->pTab;
  if( pTab==0 ) return pDef;
  if( !IsVirtual(pTab) ) return pDef;
  pVtab = sqlite3GetVTable(db, pTab)->pVtab;
  assert( pVtab!=0 );
  assert( pVtab->pModule!=0 );
  pMod = (sqlite3_module *)pVtab->pModule;
  if( pMod->xFindFunction==0 ) return pDef;
 







|
<







1049
1050
1051
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1054
1055
1056

1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
  void *pArg = 0;
  FuncDef *pNew;
  int rc = 0;

  /* Check to see the left operand is a column in a virtual table */
  if( NEVER(pExpr==0) ) return pDef;
  if( pExpr->op!=TK_COLUMN ) return pDef;
  if( pExpr->eX!=EX_Tab || (pTab = pExpr->x.pTab)==0 ) return pDef;

  if( !IsVirtual(pTab) ) return pDef;
  pVtab = sqlite3GetVTable(db, pTab)->pVtab;
  assert( pVtab!=0 );
  assert( pVtab->pModule!=0 );
  pMod = (sqlite3_module *)pVtab->pModule;
  if( pMod->xFindFunction==0 ) return pDef;
 

Changes to src/walker.c.

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52


53
54



55


56
57
58
59
60
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62
  testcase( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly) );
  testcase( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Reduced) );
  while(1){
    rc = pWalker->xExprCallback(pWalker, pExpr);
    if( rc ) return rc & WRC_Abort;
    if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr,(EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf)) ){
      if( pExpr->pLeft && walkExpr(pWalker, pExpr->pLeft) ) return WRC_Abort;
       assert( pExpr->x.pList==0 || pExpr->pRight==0 );
      if( pExpr->pRight ){
        pExpr = pExpr->pRight;
        continue;
      }else if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){


        if( sqlite3WalkSelect(pWalker, pExpr->x.pSelect) ) return WRC_Abort;
      }else if( pExpr->x.pList ){



        if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pExpr->x.pList) ) return WRC_Abort;


      }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
      if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Reduced) && pExpr->pWin ){
        Window *pWin = pExpr->pWin;
        if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pPartition) ) return WRC_Abort;
        if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pOrderBy) ) return WRC_Abort;
        if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pWin->pFilter) ) return WRC_Abort;







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41
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43
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45
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49
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51

52
53
54

55
56
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59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
  testcase( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly) );
  testcase( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Reduced) );
  while(1){
    rc = pWalker->xExprCallback(pWalker, pExpr);
    if( rc ) return rc & WRC_Abort;
    if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr,(EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf)) ){
      if( pExpr->pLeft && walkExpr(pWalker, pExpr->pLeft) ) return WRC_Abort;
      switch( pExpr->eX ){
        case EX_Right: {
          pExpr = pExpr->x.pRight;
          continue;

        }
        case EX_Select: {
          if( sqlite3WalkSelect(pWalker, pExpr->x.pSelect) ) return WRC_Abort;

          break;
        }
        case EX_List: {
          if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pExpr->x.pList) ) return WRC_Abort;
          break;
        }
      }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
      if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Reduced) && pExpr->pWin ){
        Window *pWin = pExpr->pWin;
        if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pPartition) ) return WRC_Abort;
        if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pOrderBy) ) return WRC_Abort;
        if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pWin->pFilter) ) return WRC_Abort;

Changes to src/where.c.

249
250
251
252
253
254
255

256

257
258
259
260
261
262
263
...
274
275
276
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289
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292
293
294
295
296
...
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786
787
788
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791
792
793
794
795
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797
798
799
....
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1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008

1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
....
1362
1363
1364
1365
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1367
1368

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1370
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1372

1373
1374
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1376
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1379
1380
....
1528
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....
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1552
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....
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2283
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2285
2286
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2288
2289
....
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2326
2327
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2331

2332
2333


2334
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2336
2337
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2339
2340
....
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2357
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2362
2363
....
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491

2492
2493
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2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504



2505
2506
2507
2508


2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
....
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
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2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
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2633
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2635
2636
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2639
....
2779
2780
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2782
2783
2784
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2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
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2793
....
3234
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3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
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3243
3244
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3246
3247
3248
         && (iColumn!=XN_EXPR
             || sqlite3ExprCompareSkip(pTerm->pExpr->pLeft,
                                       pScan->pIdxExpr,iCur)==0)
         && (pScan->iEquiv<=1 || !ExprHasProperty(pTerm->pExpr, EP_FromJoin))
        ){
          if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_EQUIV)!=0
           && pScan->nEquiv<ArraySize(pScan->aiCur)

           && (pX = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pTerm->pExpr->pRight))->op==TK_COLUMN

          ){
            int j;
            for(j=0; j<pScan->nEquiv; j++){
              if( pScan->aiCur[j]==pX->iTable
               && pScan->aiColumn[j]==pX->iColumn ){
                  break;
              }
................................................................................
              CollSeq *pColl;
              Parse *pParse = pWC->pWInfo->pParse;
              pX = pTerm->pExpr;
              if( !sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(pX, pScan->idxaff) ){
                continue;
              }
              assert(pX->pLeft);
              pColl = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse,
                                                  pX->pLeft, pX->pRight);
              if( pColl==0 ) pColl = pParse->db->pDfltColl;
              if( sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, pScan->zCollName) ){
                continue;
              }
            }
            if( (pTerm->eOperator & (WO_EQ|WO_IS))!=0

             && (pX = pTerm->pExpr->pRight)->op==TK_COLUMN
             && pX->iTable==pScan->aiCur[0]
             && pX->iColumn==pScan->aiColumn[0]
            ){
              testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IS );
              continue;
            }
            pScan->pWC = pWC;
................................................................................
      Bitmask cMask = iCol>=BMS ? MASKBIT(BMS-1) : MASKBIT(iCol);
      testcase( iCol==BMS-1 );
      testcase( iCol==BMS );
      if( (idxCols & cMask)==0 ){
        Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
        idxCols |= cMask;
        pIdx->aiColumn[n] = pTerm->u.leftColumn;
        pColl = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pX->pLeft, pX->pRight);
        pIdx->azColl[n] = pColl ? pColl->zName : sqlite3StrBINARY;
        n++;
      }
    }
  }
  assert( (u32)n==pLoop->u.btree.nEq );

................................................................................
      assert( WO_LT==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LT );
      assert( WO_LE==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LE );
      assert( WO_GT==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GT );
      assert( WO_GE==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GE );
      assert( pTerm->eOperator&(WO_IN|WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_AUX) );

      if( op & (WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE)

       && sqlite3ExprIsVector(pTerm->pExpr->pRight) 
      ){
        if( i<16 ) mNoOmit |= (1 << i);
        if( op==WO_LT ) pIdxCons[j].op = WO_LE;
        if( op==WO_GT ) pIdxCons[j].op = WO_GE;
      }
    }

................................................................................
  
  sqlite3_value *p1 = 0;          /* Value extracted from pLower */
  sqlite3_value *p2 = 0;          /* Value extracted from pUpper */
  sqlite3_value *pVal = 0;        /* Value extracted from record */

  pColl = sqlite3LocateCollSeq(pParse, p->azColl[nEq]);
  if( pLower ){

    rc = sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pLower->pExpr->pRight, aff, &p1);
    nLower = 0;
  }
  if( pUpper && rc==SQLITE_OK ){

    rc = sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pUpper->pExpr->pRight, aff, &p2);
    nUpper = p2 ? 0 : p->nSample;
  }

  if( p1 || p2 ){
    int i;
    int nDiff;
    for(i=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<p->nSample; i++){
................................................................................
        SWAP(WhereTerm*, pLower, pUpper);
        SWAP(int, nBtm, nTop);
      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iLower estimate using ($P:$L). */
      if( pLower ){
        int n;                    /* Values extracted from pExpr */


        Expr *pExpr = pLower->pExpr->pRight;
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, nBtm, nEq, &n);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && n ){
          tRowcnt iNew;
          u16 mask = WO_GT|WO_LE;
          if( sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr)>n ) mask = (WO_LE|WO_LT);
          iLwrIdx = whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pLower->eOperator & mask) ? a[1] : 0);
................................................................................
          pLower = 0;
        }
      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iUpper estimate using ($P:$U). */
      if( pUpper ){
        int n;                    /* Values extracted from pExpr */


        Expr *pExpr = pUpper->pExpr->pRight;
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, nTop, nEq, &n);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && n ){
          tRowcnt iNew;
          u16 mask = WO_GT|WO_LE;
          if( sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr)>n ) mask = (WO_LE|WO_LT);
          iUprIdx = whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 1, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pUpper->eOperator & mask) ? a[1] : 0);
................................................................................
        ** then use the probability provided by the application. */
        pLoop->nOut += pTerm->truthProb;
      }else{
        /* In the absence of explicit truth probabilities, use heuristics to
        ** guess a reasonable truth probability. */
        pLoop->nOut--;
        if( pTerm->eOperator&(WO_EQ|WO_IS) ){


          Expr *pRight = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;
          testcase( pTerm->pExpr->op==TK_IS );
          if( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pRight, &k) && k>=(-1) && k<=1 ){
            k = 10;
          }else{
            k = 20;
          }
          if( iReduce<k ) iReduce = k;
................................................................................
  nCmp = MIN(nCmp, (pIdx->nColumn - nEq));
  for(i=1; i<nCmp; i++){
    /* Test if comparison i of pTerm is compatible with column (i+nEq) 
    ** of the index. If not, exit the loop.  */
    char aff;                     /* Comparison affinity */
    char idxaff = 0;              /* Indexed columns affinity */
    CollSeq *pColl;               /* Comparison collation sequence */


    Expr *pLhs = pTerm->pExpr->pLeft->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;

    Expr *pRhs = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;
    if( pRhs->flags & EP_xIsSelect ){


      pRhs = pRhs->x.pSelect->pEList->a[i].pExpr;
    }else{
      pRhs = pRhs->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;
    }

    /* Check that the LHS of the comparison is a column reference to
    ** the right column of the right source table. And that the sort
................................................................................
    }

    testcase( pLhs->iColumn==XN_ROWID );
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRhs, sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLhs));
    idxaff = sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pIdx->pTable, pLhs->iColumn);
    if( aff!=idxaff ) break;

    pColl = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pLhs, pRhs);
    if( pColl==0 ) break;
    if( sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, pIdx->azColl[i+nEq]) ) break;
  }
  return i;
}

/*
................................................................................
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_NULL)!=0 
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_IN)!=0 
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_SKIPSCAN)!=0 
    );

    if( eOp & WO_IN ){
      Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){

        /* "x IN (SELECT ...)":  TUNING: the SELECT returns 25 rows */
        int i;
        nIn = 46;  assert( 46==sqlite3LogEst(25) );

        /* The expression may actually be of the form (x, y) IN (SELECT...).
        ** In this case there is a separate term for each of (x) and (y).
        ** However, the nIn multiplier should only be applied once, not once
        ** for each such term. The following loop checks that pTerm is the
        ** first such term in use, and sets nIn back to 0 if it is not. */
        for(i=0; i<pNew->nLTerm-1; i++){
          if( pNew->aLTerm[i] && pNew->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pExpr ) nIn = 0;
        }
      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList && pExpr->x.pList->nExpr) ){



        /* "x IN (value, value, ...)" */
        nIn = sqlite3LogEst(pExpr->x.pList->nExpr);
        assert( nIn>0 );  /* RHS always has 2 or more terms...  The parser
                          ** changes "x IN (?)" into "x=?". */


      }
      if( pProbe->hasStat1 ){
        LogEst M, logK, safetyMargin;
        /* Let:
        **   N = the total number of rows in the table
        **   K = the number of entries on the RHS of the IN operator
        **   M = the number of rows in the table that match terms to the 
................................................................................
        pNew->nOut -= nIn;
      }else{
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
        tRowcnt nOut = 0;
        if( nInMul==0 
         && pProbe->nSample 
         && pNew->u.btree.nEq<=pProbe->nSampleCol
         && ((eOp & WO_IN)==0 || !ExprHasProperty(pTerm->pExpr, EP_xIsSelect))
         && OptimizationEnabled(db, SQLITE_Stat34)
        ){
          Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
          if( (eOp & (WO_EQ|WO_ISNULL|WO_IS))!=0 ){
            testcase( eOp & WO_EQ );
            testcase( eOp & WO_IS );
            testcase( eOp & WO_ISNULL );
            rc = whereEqualScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pExpr->pRight, &nOut);
          }else{

            rc = whereInScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pExpr->x.pList, &nOut);
          }
          if( rc==SQLITE_NOTFOUND ) rc = SQLITE_OK;
          if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;          /* Jump out of the pTerm loop */
          if( nOut ){
            pNew->nOut = sqlite3LogEst(nOut);
            if( pNew->nOut>saved_nOut ) pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
................................................................................
*/
static int whereUsablePartialIndex(int iTab, WhereClause *pWC, Expr *pWhere){
  int i;
  WhereTerm *pTerm;
  Parse *pParse = pWC->pWInfo->pParse;
  while( pWhere->op==TK_AND ){
    if( !whereUsablePartialIndex(iTab,pWC,pWhere->pLeft) ) return 0;

    pWhere = pWhere->pRight;
  }
  if( pParse->db->flags & SQLITE_EnableQPSG ) pParse = 0;
  for(i=0, pTerm=pWC->a; i<pWC->nTerm; i++, pTerm++){
    Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
    if( (!ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) || pExpr->iRightJoinTable==iTab)
     && sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(pParse, pExpr, pWhere, iTab) 
    ){
................................................................................
  HiddenIndexInfo *pHidden = (HiddenIndexInfo*)&pIdxInfo[1];
  const char *zRet = 0;
  if( iCons>=0 && iCons<pIdxInfo->nConstraint ){
    CollSeq *pC = 0;
    int iTerm = pIdxInfo->aConstraint[iCons].iTermOffset;
    Expr *pX = pHidden->pWC->a[iTerm].pExpr;
    if( pX->pLeft ){
      pC = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pHidden->pParse, pX->pLeft, pX->pRight);
    }
    zRet = (pC ? pC->zName : sqlite3StrBINARY);
  }
  return zRet;
}

/*







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249
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263
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265
...
276
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279
280
281
282
283

284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
...
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
....
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
....
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
....
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
....
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
....
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
....
2335
2336
2337
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2341
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2346

2347
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2355
....
2364
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....
2499
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2508
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2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
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2519

2520
2521
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2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
....
2636
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2641
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2650
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2657
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2660
....
2800
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2802
2803
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2805
2806
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2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
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....
3256
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3260
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3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
         && (iColumn!=XN_EXPR
             || sqlite3ExprCompareSkip(pTerm->pExpr->pLeft,
                                       pScan->pIdxExpr,iCur)==0)
         && (pScan->iEquiv<=1 || !ExprHasProperty(pTerm->pExpr, EP_FromJoin))
        ){
          if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_EQUIV)!=0
           && pScan->nEquiv<ArraySize(pScan->aiCur)
           && ALWAYS(pTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_Right)
           && (pX = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pTerm->pExpr->x.pRight))->op
                       ==TK_COLUMN
          ){
            int j;
            for(j=0; j<pScan->nEquiv; j++){
              if( pScan->aiCur[j]==pX->iTable
               && pScan->aiColumn[j]==pX->iColumn ){
                  break;
              }
................................................................................
              CollSeq *pColl;
              Parse *pParse = pWC->pWInfo->pParse;
              pX = pTerm->pExpr;
              if( !sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(pX, pScan->idxaff) ){
                continue;
              }
              assert(pX->pLeft);
              pColl = sqlite3ComparisonExprCollSeq(pParse, pX);

              if( pColl==0 ) pColl = pParse->db->pDfltColl;
              if( sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, pScan->zCollName) ){
                continue;
              }
            }
            if( (pTerm->eOperator & (WO_EQ|WO_IS))!=0
             && ALWAYS(pTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_Right)
             && (pX = pTerm->pExpr->x.pRight)->op==TK_COLUMN
             && pX->iTable==pScan->aiCur[0]
             && pX->iColumn==pScan->aiColumn[0]
            ){
              testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IS );
              continue;
            }
            pScan->pWC = pWC;
................................................................................
      Bitmask cMask = iCol>=BMS ? MASKBIT(BMS-1) : MASKBIT(iCol);
      testcase( iCol==BMS-1 );
      testcase( iCol==BMS );
      if( (idxCols & cMask)==0 ){
        Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
        idxCols |= cMask;
        pIdx->aiColumn[n] = pTerm->u.leftColumn;
        pColl = sqlite3ComparisonExprCollSeq(pParse, pX);
        pIdx->azColl[n] = pColl ? pColl->zName : sqlite3StrBINARY;
        n++;
      }
    }
  }
  assert( (u32)n==pLoop->u.btree.nEq );

................................................................................
      assert( WO_LT==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LT );
      assert( WO_LE==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LE );
      assert( WO_GT==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GT );
      assert( WO_GE==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GE );
      assert( pTerm->eOperator&(WO_IN|WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_AUX) );

      if( op & (WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE)
       && ALWAYS(pTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_Right)
       && sqlite3ExprIsVector(pTerm->pExpr->x.pRight) 
      ){
        if( i<16 ) mNoOmit |= (1 << i);
        if( op==WO_LT ) pIdxCons[j].op = WO_LE;
        if( op==WO_GT ) pIdxCons[j].op = WO_GE;
      }
    }

................................................................................
  
  sqlite3_value *p1 = 0;          /* Value extracted from pLower */
  sqlite3_value *p2 = 0;          /* Value extracted from pUpper */
  sqlite3_value *pVal = 0;        /* Value extracted from record */

  pColl = sqlite3LocateCollSeq(pParse, p->azColl[nEq]);
  if( pLower ){
    assert( pLower->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
    rc = sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pLower->pExpr->x.pRight, aff, &p1);
    nLower = 0;
  }
  if( pUpper && rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    assert( pUpper->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
    rc = sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pUpper->pExpr->x.pRight, aff, &p2);
    nUpper = p2 ? 0 : p->nSample;
  }

  if( p1 || p2 ){
    int i;
    int nDiff;
    for(i=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<p->nSample; i++){
................................................................................
        SWAP(WhereTerm*, pLower, pUpper);
        SWAP(int, nBtm, nTop);
      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iLower estimate using ($P:$L). */
      if( pLower ){
        int n;                    /* Values extracted from pExpr */
        Expr *pExpr;
        assert( pLower->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
        pExpr = pLower->pExpr->x.pRight;
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, nBtm, nEq, &n);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && n ){
          tRowcnt iNew;
          u16 mask = WO_GT|WO_LE;
          if( sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr)>n ) mask = (WO_LE|WO_LT);
          iLwrIdx = whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pLower->eOperator & mask) ? a[1] : 0);
................................................................................
          pLower = 0;
        }
      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iUpper estimate using ($P:$U). */
      if( pUpper ){
        int n;                    /* Values extracted from pExpr */
        Expr *pExpr;
        assert( pUpper->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
        pExpr = pUpper->pExpr->x.pRight;
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, nTop, nEq, &n);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && n ){
          tRowcnt iNew;
          u16 mask = WO_GT|WO_LE;
          if( sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr)>n ) mask = (WO_LE|WO_LT);
          iUprIdx = whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 1, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pUpper->eOperator & mask) ? a[1] : 0);
................................................................................
        ** then use the probability provided by the application. */
        pLoop->nOut += pTerm->truthProb;
      }else{
        /* In the absence of explicit truth probabilities, use heuristics to
        ** guess a reasonable truth probability. */
        pLoop->nOut--;
        if( pTerm->eOperator&(WO_EQ|WO_IS) ){
          Expr *pRight;
          assert( pTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
          pRight = pTerm->pExpr->x.pRight;
          testcase( pTerm->pExpr->op==TK_IS );
          if( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pRight, &k) && k>=(-1) && k<=1 ){
            k = 10;
          }else{
            k = 20;
          }
          if( iReduce<k ) iReduce = k;
................................................................................
  nCmp = MIN(nCmp, (pIdx->nColumn - nEq));
  for(i=1; i<nCmp; i++){
    /* Test if comparison i of pTerm is compatible with column (i+nEq) 
    ** of the index. If not, exit the loop.  */
    char aff;                     /* Comparison affinity */
    char idxaff = 0;              /* Indexed columns affinity */
    CollSeq *pColl;               /* Comparison collation sequence */
    Expr *pLhs;
    Expr *pRhs;
    pLhs = pTerm->pExpr->pLeft->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;
    assert( pTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
    pRhs = pTerm->pExpr->x.pRight;

    assert( pRhs->eX==EX_Select || pRhs->eX==EX_List );
    if( pRhs->eX==EX_Select ){
      pRhs = pRhs->x.pSelect->pEList->a[i].pExpr;
    }else{
      pRhs = pRhs->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;
    }

    /* Check that the LHS of the comparison is a column reference to
    ** the right column of the right source table. And that the sort
................................................................................
    }

    testcase( pLhs->iColumn==XN_ROWID );
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRhs, sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLhs));
    idxaff = sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pIdx->pTable, pLhs->iColumn);
    if( aff!=idxaff ) break;

    pColl = sqlite3ComparisonCollSeq(pParse, pLhs, pRhs);
    if( pColl==0 ) break;
    if( sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, pIdx->azColl[i+nEq]) ) break;
  }
  return i;
}

/*
................................................................................
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_NULL)!=0 
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_IN)!=0 
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_SKIPSCAN)!=0 
    );

    if( eOp & WO_IN ){
      Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
      switch( pExpr->eX ){
        case EX_Select: {
          /* "x IN (SELECT ...)":  TUNING: the SELECT returns 25 rows */
          int i;
          nIn = 46;  assert( 46==sqlite3LogEst(25) );
  
          /* The expression may actually be of the form (x, y) IN (SELECT...).
          ** In this case there is a separate term for each of (x) and (y).
          ** However, the nIn multiplier should only be applied once, not once
          ** for each such term. The following loop checks that pTerm is the
          ** first such term in use, and sets nIn back to 0 if it is not. */
          for(i=0; i<pNew->nLTerm-1; i++){
            if( pNew->aLTerm[i] && pNew->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pExpr ) nIn = 0;
          }

          break;
        }
        case EX_List: {
          /* "x IN (value, value, ...)" */
          nIn = sqlite3LogEst(pExpr->x.pList->nExpr);
          assert( nIn>0 );  /* RHS always has 2 or more terms...  The parser
                            ** changes "x IN (?)" into "x=?". */
          break;
        }
      }
      if( pProbe->hasStat1 ){
        LogEst M, logK, safetyMargin;
        /* Let:
        **   N = the total number of rows in the table
        **   K = the number of entries on the RHS of the IN operator
        **   M = the number of rows in the table that match terms to the 
................................................................................
        pNew->nOut -= nIn;
      }else{
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
        tRowcnt nOut = 0;
        if( nInMul==0 
         && pProbe->nSample 
         && pNew->u.btree.nEq<=pProbe->nSampleCol
         && ((eOp & WO_IN)==0 || pTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_List)
         && OptimizationEnabled(db, SQLITE_Stat34)
        ){
          Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
          if( (eOp & (WO_EQ|WO_IS))!=0 ){
            testcase( eOp & WO_EQ );
            testcase( eOp & WO_IS );
            testcase( eOp & WO_ISNULL );
            assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
            rc = whereEqualScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pExpr->x.pRight, &nOut);
          }else if( pExpr->eX==EX_List ){
            rc = whereInScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pExpr->x.pList, &nOut);
          }
          if( rc==SQLITE_NOTFOUND ) rc = SQLITE_OK;
          if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;          /* Jump out of the pTerm loop */
          if( nOut ){
            pNew->nOut = sqlite3LogEst(nOut);
            if( pNew->nOut>saved_nOut ) pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
................................................................................
*/
static int whereUsablePartialIndex(int iTab, WhereClause *pWC, Expr *pWhere){
  int i;
  WhereTerm *pTerm;
  Parse *pParse = pWC->pWInfo->pParse;
  while( pWhere->op==TK_AND ){
    if( !whereUsablePartialIndex(iTab,pWC,pWhere->pLeft) ) return 0;
    assert( pWhere->eX==EX_Right );
    pWhere = pWhere->x.pRight;
  }
  if( pParse->db->flags & SQLITE_EnableQPSG ) pParse = 0;
  for(i=0, pTerm=pWC->a; i<pWC->nTerm; i++, pTerm++){
    Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
    if( (!ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) || pExpr->iRightJoinTable==iTab)
     && sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(pParse, pExpr, pWhere, iTab) 
    ){
................................................................................
  HiddenIndexInfo *pHidden = (HiddenIndexInfo*)&pIdxInfo[1];
  const char *zRet = 0;
  if( iCons>=0 && iCons<pIdxInfo->nConstraint ){
    CollSeq *pC = 0;
    int iTerm = pIdxInfo->aConstraint[iCons].iTermOffset;
    Expr *pX = pHidden->pWC->a[iTerm].pExpr;
    if( pX->pLeft ){
      pC = sqlite3ComparisonExprCollSeq(pHidden->pParse,pX);
    }
    zRet = (pC ? pC->zName : sqlite3StrBINARY);
  }
  return zRet;
}

/*

Changes to src/wherecode.c.

431
432
433
434
435
436
437

438

439
440
441
442
443
444
445
...
498
499
500
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504

505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
...
534
535
536
537
538
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548
...
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
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740
741
742
743
744


745
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....
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1084
....
1113
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1123
1124
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1126
1127
....
1258
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1265

1266
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1269
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1272
....
1303
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1309

1310
1311


1312
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1314
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....
1389
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1395

1396
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....
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....
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1625
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....
1670
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1676


1677
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....
2190
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2198
2199
2200
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2202
2203
2204
        assert( pOrigLhs->a[iField].pExpr!=0 );
        pLhs = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pLhs, pOrigLhs->a[iField].pExpr);
        pOrigLhs->a[iField].pExpr = 0;
      }
    }
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pOrigRhs);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pOrigLhs);

    pNew->pLeft->x.pList = pLhs;

    pNew->x.pSelect->pEList = pRhs;
    if( pLhs && pLhs->nExpr==1 ){
      /* Take care here not to generate a TK_VECTOR containing only a
      ** single value. Since the parser never creates such a vector, some
      ** of the subroutines do not handle this case.  */
      Expr *p = pLhs->a[0].pExpr;
      pLhs->a[0].pExpr = 0;
................................................................................
  Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  int iReg;                  /* Register holding results */

  assert( pLevel->pWLoop->aLTerm[iEq]==pTerm );
  assert( iTarget>0 );
  if( pX->op==TK_EQ || pX->op==TK_IS ){

    iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pX->pRight, iTarget);
  }else if( pX->op==TK_ISNULL ){
    iReg = iTarget;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, iReg);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  }else{
    int eType = IN_INDEX_NOOP;
    int iTab;
................................................................................
      }
    }
    for(i=iEq;i<pLoop->nLTerm; i++){
      assert( pLoop->aLTerm[i]!=0 );
      if( pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ) nEq++;
    }

    if( (pX->flags & EP_xIsSelect)==0 || pX->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr==1 ){
      eType = sqlite3FindInIndex(pParse, pX, IN_INDEX_LOOP, 0, 0);
    }else{
      sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
      pX = removeUnindexableInClauseTerms(pParse, iEq, pLoop, pX);

      if( !db->mallocFailed ){
        aiMap = (int*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(pParse->db, sizeof(int)*nEq);
................................................................................
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regBase);
        regBase = r1;
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, r1, regBase+j);
      }
    }
    if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
      if( pTerm->pExpr->flags & EP_xIsSelect ){
        /* No affinity ever needs to be (or should be) applied to a value
        ** from the RHS of an "? IN (SELECT ...)" expression. The 
        ** sqlite3FindInIndex() routine has already ensured that the 
        ** affinity of the comparison has been applied to the value.  */
        if( zAff ) zAff[j] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
      }
    }else if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_ISNULL)==0 ){


      Expr *pRight = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;
      if( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_IS)==0 && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight) ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+j, pLevel->addrBrk);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zAff ){
        if( sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRight, zAff[j])==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
          zAff[j] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
................................................................................
** this case, generate code to evaluate the expression and leave the
** result in register iReg.
*/
static void codeExprOrVector(Parse *pParse, Expr *p, int iReg, int nReg){
  assert( nReg>0 );
  if( p && sqlite3ExprIsVector(p) ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    if( (p->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
      Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
      int iSelect = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, p, 0, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Copy, iSelect, iReg, nReg-1);
    }else
#endif
    {
      int i;
................................................................................
*/
static int whereIndexExprTransNode(Walker *p, Expr *pExpr){
  IdxExprTrans *pX = p->u.pIdxTrans;
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(0, pExpr, pX->pIdxExpr, pX->iTabCur)==0 ){
    pExpr->op = TK_COLUMN;
    pExpr->iTable = pX->iIdxCur;
    pExpr->iColumn = pX->iIdxCol;
    pExpr->pTab = 0;
    return WRC_Prune;
  }else{
    return WRC_Continue;
  }
}

/*
................................................................................
      int iTarget = iReg+j+2;
      pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[j];
      if( NEVER(pTerm==0) ) continue;
      if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
        codeEqualityTerm(pParse, pTerm, pLevel, j, bRev, iTarget);
        addrNotFound = pLevel->addrNxt;
      }else{
        Expr *pRight = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;

        codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, iTarget, 1);
      }
    }
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, pLoop->u.vtab.idxNum, iReg);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, nConstraint, iReg+1);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_VFilter, iCur, addrNotFound, iReg,
                      pLoop->u.vtab.idxStr,
................................................................................

        /* Generate code that will continue to the next row if 
        ** the IN constraint is not satisfied */
        pCompare = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_EQ, 0, 0);
        assert( pCompare!=0 || db->mallocFailed );
        if( pCompare ){
          pCompare->pLeft = pTerm->pExpr->pLeft;

          pCompare->pRight = pRight = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_REGISTER, 0);
          if( pRight ){


            pRight->iTable = iReg+j+2;
            sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pCompare, pLevel->addrCont, 0);
          }
          pCompare->pLeft = 0;
          sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pCompare);
        }
      }
................................................................................
      assert( TK_GE==TK_GT+3 );      /*  ... is correcct. */

      assert( (pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      pX = pStart->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );
      testcase( pStart->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* transitive constraints */

      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->pRight) ){
        r1 = rTemp = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        codeExprOrVector(pParse, pX->pRight, r1, 1);
        testcase( pX->op==TK_GT );
        testcase( pX->op==TK_GE );
        testcase( pX->op==TK_LT );
        testcase( pX->op==TK_LE );
        op = aMoveOp[((pX->op - TK_GT - 1) & 0x3) | 0x1];
        assert( pX->op!=TK_GT || op==OP_SeekGE );
        assert( pX->op!=TK_GE || op==OP_SeekGE );
        assert( pX->op!=TK_LT || op==OP_SeekLE );
        assert( pX->op!=TK_LE || op==OP_SeekLE );
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pX->pRight, &rTemp);
        disableTerm(pLevel, pStart);
        op = aMoveOp[(pX->op - TK_GT)];
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, op, iCur, addrBrk, r1);
      VdbeComment((v, "pk"));
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_GT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_LE);
................................................................................
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev==0);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev!=0);
    }
    if( pEnd ){
      Expr *pX;
      pX = pEnd->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );

      assert( (pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pEnd->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* Transitive constraints */
      testcase( pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      memEndValue = ++pParse->nMem;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pX->pRight, memEndValue, 1);
      if( 0==sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->pRight) 
       && (pX->op==TK_LT || pX->op==TK_GT) 
      ){
        testOp = bRev ? OP_Le : OP_Ge;
      }else{
        testOp = bRev ? OP_Lt : OP_Gt;
      }
      if( 0==sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->pRight) ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pEnd);
      }
    }
    start = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    pLevel->op = bRev ? OP_Prev : OP_Next;
    pLevel->p1 = iCur;
    pLevel->p2 = start;
................................................................................
    startEq = !pRangeStart || pRangeStart->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
    endEq =   !pRangeEnd || pRangeEnd->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
    start_constraints = pRangeStart || nEq>0;

    /* Seek the index cursor to the start of the range. */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeStart ){


      Expr *pRight = pRangeStart->pExpr->pRight;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq, nBtm);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeStart);
      if( (pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
................................................................................
    }

    /* Load the value for the inequality constraint at the end of the
    ** range (if any).
    */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeEnd ){


      Expr *pRight = pRangeEnd->pExpr->pRight;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq, nTop);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeEnd);
      if( (pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
................................................................................
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pE, EP_FromJoin) );
    assert( (pTerm->prereqRight & pLevel->notReady)!=0 );
    pAlt = sqlite3WhereFindTerm(pWC, iCur, pTerm->u.leftColumn, notReady,
                    WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_IS, 0);
    if( pAlt==0 ) continue;
    if( pAlt->wtFlags & (TERM_CODED) ) continue;
    if( (pAlt->eOperator & WO_IN) 
     && (pAlt->pExpr->flags & EP_xIsSelect)
     && (pAlt->pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr>1)
    ){
      continue;
    }
    testcase( pAlt->eOperator & WO_EQ );
    testcase( pAlt->eOperator & WO_IS );
    testcase( pAlt->eOperator & WO_IN );







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        assert( pOrigLhs->a[iField].pExpr!=0 );
        pLhs = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pLhs, pOrigLhs->a[iField].pExpr);
        pOrigLhs->a[iField].pExpr = 0;
      }
    }
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pOrigRhs);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pOrigLhs);
    assert( pNew->pLeft->eX==EX_List );
    pNew->pLeft->x.pList = pLhs;
    if( pLhs==0 ) pNew->pLeft->eX = EX_None;
    pNew->x.pSelect->pEList = pRhs;
    if( pLhs && pLhs->nExpr==1 ){
      /* Take care here not to generate a TK_VECTOR containing only a
      ** single value. Since the parser never creates such a vector, some
      ** of the subroutines do not handle this case.  */
      Expr *p = pLhs->a[0].pExpr;
      pLhs->a[0].pExpr = 0;
................................................................................
  Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  int iReg;                  /* Register holding results */

  assert( pLevel->pWLoop->aLTerm[iEq]==pTerm );
  assert( iTarget>0 );
  if( pX->op==TK_EQ || pX->op==TK_IS ){
    assert( pX->eX==EX_Right );
    iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pX->x.pRight, iTarget);
  }else if( pX->op==TK_ISNULL ){
    iReg = iTarget;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, iReg);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  }else{
    int eType = IN_INDEX_NOOP;
    int iTab;
................................................................................
      }
    }
    for(i=iEq;i<pLoop->nLTerm; i++){
      assert( pLoop->aLTerm[i]!=0 );
      if( pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ) nEq++;
    }

    if( pX->eX!=EX_Select || pX->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr==1 ){
      eType = sqlite3FindInIndex(pParse, pX, IN_INDEX_LOOP, 0, 0);
    }else{
      sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
      pX = removeUnindexableInClauseTerms(pParse, iEq, pLoop, pX);

      if( !db->mallocFailed ){
        aiMap = (int*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(pParse->db, sizeof(int)*nEq);
................................................................................
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regBase);
        regBase = r1;
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, r1, regBase+j);
      }
    }
    if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
      if( pTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_Select ){
        /* No affinity ever needs to be (or should be) applied to a value
        ** from the RHS of an "? IN (SELECT ...)" expression. The 
        ** sqlite3FindInIndex() routine has already ensured that the 
        ** affinity of the comparison has been applied to the value.  */
        if( zAff ) zAff[j] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
      }
    }else if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_ISNULL)==0 ){
      Expr *pRight;
      assert( pTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      pRight = pTerm->pExpr->x.pRight;
      if( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_IS)==0 && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight) ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+j, pLevel->addrBrk);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zAff ){
        if( sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRight, zAff[j])==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
          zAff[j] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
................................................................................
** this case, generate code to evaluate the expression and leave the
** result in register iReg.
*/
static void codeExprOrVector(Parse *pParse, Expr *p, int iReg, int nReg){
  assert( nReg>0 );
  if( p && sqlite3ExprIsVector(p) ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    if( p->eX==EX_Select ){
      Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
      int iSelect = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, p, 0, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Copy, iSelect, iReg, nReg-1);
    }else
#endif
    {
      int i;
................................................................................
*/
static int whereIndexExprTransNode(Walker *p, Expr *pExpr){
  IdxExprTrans *pX = p->u.pIdxTrans;
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(0, pExpr, pX->pIdxExpr, pX->iTabCur)==0 ){
    pExpr->op = TK_COLUMN;
    pExpr->iTable = pX->iIdxCur;
    pExpr->iColumn = pX->iIdxCol;
    /* pExpr->pTab = 0; */
    return WRC_Prune;
  }else{
    return WRC_Continue;
  }
}

/*
................................................................................
      int iTarget = iReg+j+2;
      pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[j];
      if( NEVER(pTerm==0) ) continue;
      if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
        codeEqualityTerm(pParse, pTerm, pLevel, j, bRev, iTarget);
        addrNotFound = pLevel->addrNxt;
      }else{
        Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
        Expr *pRight = pExpr->eX==EX_Right ? pExpr->x.pRight : 0;
        codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, iTarget, 1);
      }
    }
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, pLoop->u.vtab.idxNum, iReg);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, nConstraint, iReg+1);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_VFilter, iCur, addrNotFound, iReg,
                      pLoop->u.vtab.idxStr,
................................................................................

        /* Generate code that will continue to the next row if 
        ** the IN constraint is not satisfied */
        pCompare = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_EQ, 0, 0);
        assert( pCompare!=0 || db->mallocFailed );
        if( pCompare ){
          pCompare->pLeft = pTerm->pExpr->pLeft;
          assert( pCompare->eX==EX_None );
          pRight = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_REGISTER, 0);
          if( pRight ){
            pCompare->x.pRight = pRight;
            pCompare->eX = EX_Right;
            pRight->iTable = iReg+j+2;
            sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pCompare, pLevel->addrCont, 0);
          }
          pCompare->pLeft = 0;
          sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pCompare);
        }
      }
................................................................................
      assert( TK_GE==TK_GT+3 );      /*  ... is correcct. */

      assert( (pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      pX = pStart->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );
      testcase( pStart->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* transitive constraints */
      assert( pX->eX==EX_Right );
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->x.pRight) ){
        r1 = rTemp = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        codeExprOrVector(pParse, pX->x.pRight, r1, 1);
        testcase( pX->op==TK_GT );
        testcase( pX->op==TK_GE );
        testcase( pX->op==TK_LT );
        testcase( pX->op==TK_LE );
        op = aMoveOp[((pX->op - TK_GT - 1) & 0x3) | 0x1];
        assert( pX->op!=TK_GT || op==OP_SeekGE );
        assert( pX->op!=TK_GE || op==OP_SeekGE );
        assert( pX->op!=TK_LT || op==OP_SeekLE );
        assert( pX->op!=TK_LE || op==OP_SeekLE );
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pX->x.pRight, &rTemp);
        disableTerm(pLevel, pStart);
        op = aMoveOp[(pX->op - TK_GT)];
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, op, iCur, addrBrk, r1);
      VdbeComment((v, "pk"));
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_GT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_LE);
................................................................................
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev==0);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev!=0);
    }
    if( pEnd ){
      Expr *pX;
      pX = pEnd->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );
      assert( pX->eX==EX_Right );
      assert( (pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pEnd->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* Transitive constraints */
      testcase( pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      memEndValue = ++pParse->nMem;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pX->x.pRight, memEndValue, 1);
      if( 0==sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->x.pRight) 
       && (pX->op==TK_LT || pX->op==TK_GT) 
      ){
        testOp = bRev ? OP_Le : OP_Ge;
      }else{
        testOp = bRev ? OP_Lt : OP_Gt;
      }
      if( 0==sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->x.pRight) ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pEnd);
      }
    }
    start = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    pLevel->op = bRev ? OP_Prev : OP_Next;
    pLevel->p1 = iCur;
    pLevel->p2 = start;
................................................................................
    startEq = !pRangeStart || pRangeStart->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
    endEq =   !pRangeEnd || pRangeEnd->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
    start_constraints = pRangeStart || nEq>0;

    /* Seek the index cursor to the start of the range. */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeStart ){
      Expr *pRight;
      assert( pRangeStart->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      pRight = pRangeStart->pExpr->x.pRight;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq, nBtm);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeStart);
      if( (pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
................................................................................
    }

    /* Load the value for the inequality constraint at the end of the
    ** range (if any).
    */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeEnd ){
      Expr *pRight;
      assert( pRangeEnd->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      pRight = pRangeEnd->pExpr->x.pRight;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq, nTop);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeEnd);
      if( (pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
................................................................................
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pE, EP_FromJoin) );
    assert( (pTerm->prereqRight & pLevel->notReady)!=0 );
    pAlt = sqlite3WhereFindTerm(pWC, iCur, pTerm->u.leftColumn, notReady,
                    WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_IS, 0);
    if( pAlt==0 ) continue;
    if( pAlt->wtFlags & (TERM_CODED) ) continue;
    if( (pAlt->eOperator & WO_IN) 
     && (pAlt->pExpr->eX==EX_Select)
     && (pAlt->pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr>1)
    ){
      continue;
    }
    testcase( pAlt->eOperator & WO_EQ );
    testcase( pAlt->eOperator & WO_IS );
    testcase( pAlt->eOperator & WO_IN );

Changes to src/whereexpr.c.

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** that the collating sequence does not change.  For example:
** "Y collate NOCASE op X" becomes "X op Y" because any collation sequence on
** the left hand side of a comparison overrides any collation sequence 
** attached to the right. For the same reason the EP_Collate flag
** is not commuted.
*/
static void exprCommute(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){


  u16 expRight = (pExpr->pRight->flags & EP_Collate);
  u16 expLeft = (pExpr->pLeft->flags & EP_Collate);
  assert( allowedOp(pExpr->op) && pExpr->op!=TK_IN );
  if( expRight==expLeft ){
    /* Either X and Y both have COLLATE operator or neither do */
    if( expRight ){
      /* Both X and Y have COLLATE operators.  Make sure X is always
      ** used by clearing the EP_Collate flag from Y. */
      pExpr->pRight->flags &= ~EP_Collate;
    }else if( sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft)!=0 ){
      /* Neither X nor Y have COLLATE operators, but X has a non-default
      ** collating sequence.  So add the EP_Collate marker on X to cause
      ** it to be searched first. */
      pExpr->pLeft->flags |= EP_Collate;
    }
  }
  SWAP(Expr*,pExpr->pRight,pExpr->pLeft);
  if( pExpr->op>=TK_GT ){
    assert( TK_LT==TK_GT+2 );
    assert( TK_GE==TK_LE+2 );
    assert( TK_GT>TK_EQ );
    assert( TK_GT<TK_LE );
    assert( pExpr->op>=TK_GT && pExpr->op<=TK_GE );
    pExpr->op = ((pExpr->op-TK_GT)^2)+TK_GT;
................................................................................
        ** be converted into "x<0", which is incorrect.
        */
        if( sqlite3Isdigit(zNew[0])
         || zNew[0]=='-'
         || (zNew[0]+1=='0' && iTo==1)
        ){
          if( pLeft->op!=TK_COLUMN 
           || sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLeft)!=SQLITE_AFF_TEXT 

           || IsVirtual(pLeft->pTab)  /* Value might be numeric */
          ){
            sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pPrefix);
            sqlite3ValueFree(pVal);
            return 0;
          }
        }
      }
................................................................................
    ** virtual table on their second argument, which is the same as
    ** the left-hand side operand in their in-fix form.
    **
    **       vtab_column MATCH expression
    **       MATCH(expression,vtab_column)
    */
    pCol = pList->a[1].pExpr;
    if( pCol->op==TK_COLUMN && IsVirtual(pCol->pTab) ){
      for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aOp); i++){
        if( sqlite3StrICmp(pExpr->u.zToken, aOp[i].zOp)==0 ){
          *peOp2 = aOp[i].eOp2;
          *ppRight = pList->a[0].pExpr;
          *ppLeft = pCol;
          return 1;
        }
................................................................................
    **      OVERLOADED(vtab_column,expression)
    **
    ** Historically, xFindFunction expected to see lower-case function
    ** names.  But for this use case, xFindFunction is expected to deal
    ** with function names in an arbitrary case.
    */
    pCol = pList->a[0].pExpr;
    if( pCol->op==TK_COLUMN && IsVirtual(pCol->pTab) ){
      sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;
      sqlite3_module *pMod;
      void (*xNotUsed)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
      void *pNotUsed;
      pVtab = sqlite3GetVTable(db, pCol->pTab)->pVtab;
      assert( pVtab!=0 );
      assert( pVtab->pModule!=0 );
      pMod = (sqlite3_module *)pVtab->pModule;
      if( pMod->xFindFunction!=0 ){
        i = pMod->xFindFunction(pVtab,2, pExpr->u.zToken, &xNotUsed, &pNotUsed);
        if( i>=SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_FUNCTION ){
          *peOp2 = i;
................................................................................
          return 1;
        }
      }
    }
  }else if( pExpr->op==TK_NE || pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT || pExpr->op==TK_NOTNULL ){
    int res = 0;
    Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
    Expr *pRight = pExpr->pRight;
    if( pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN && IsVirtual(pLeft->pTab) ){
      res++;
    }
    if( pRight && pRight->op==TK_COLUMN && IsVirtual(pRight->pTab) ){

      res++;
      SWAP(Expr*, pLeft, pRight);
    }
    *ppLeft = pLeft;
    *ppRight = pRight;
    if( pExpr->op==TK_NE ) *peOp2 = SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_NE;
    if( pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT ) *peOp2 = SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_ISNOT;
................................................................................
  int op;                /* Operator for the combined expression */
  int idxNew;            /* Index in pWC of the next virtual term */

  if( (pOne->eOperator & (WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE))==0 ) return;
  if( (pTwo->eOperator & (WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE))==0 ) return;
  if( (eOp & (WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE))!=eOp
   && (eOp & (WO_EQ|WO_GT|WO_GE))!=eOp ) return;
  assert( pOne->pExpr->pLeft!=0 && pOne->pExpr->pRight!=0 );
  assert( pTwo->pExpr->pLeft!=0 && pTwo->pExpr->pRight!=0 );
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(0,pOne->pExpr->pLeft, pTwo->pExpr->pLeft, -1) ) return;


  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(0,pOne->pExpr->pRight, pTwo->pExpr->pRight,-1) )return;


  /* If we reach this point, it means the two subterms can be combined */
  if( (eOp & (eOp-1))!=0 ){
    if( eOp & (WO_LT|WO_LE) ){
      eOp = WO_LE;
    }else{
      assert( eOp & (WO_GT|WO_GE) );
      eOp = WO_GE;
................................................................................
          okToChngToIN = 0;
        }else{
          int affLeft, affRight;
          /* If the right-hand side is also a column, then the affinities
          ** of both right and left sides must be such that no type
          ** conversions are required on the right.  (Ticket #2249)
          */

          affRight = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pOrTerm->pExpr->pRight);
          affLeft = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pOrTerm->pExpr->pLeft);
          if( affRight!=0 && affRight!=affLeft ){
            okToChngToIN = 0;
          }else{
            pOrTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_OR_OK;
          }
        }
................................................................................
      Expr *pNew;            /* The complete IN operator */

      for(i=pOrWc->nTerm-1, pOrTerm=pOrWc->a; i>=0; i--, pOrTerm++){
        if( (pOrTerm->wtFlags & TERM_OR_OK)==0 ) continue;
        assert( pOrTerm->eOperator & WO_EQ );
        assert( pOrTerm->leftCursor==iCursor );
        assert( pOrTerm->u.leftColumn==iColumn );

        pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrTerm->pExpr->pRight, 0);
        pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pWInfo->pParse, pList, pDup);
        pLeft = pOrTerm->pExpr->pLeft;
      }
      assert( pLeft!=0 );
      pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pLeft, 0);
      pNew = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, pDup, 0);
      if( pNew ){
        int idxNew;
        transferJoinMarkings(pNew, pExpr);
        assert( !ExprHasProperty(pNew, EP_xIsSelect) );

        pNew->x.pList = pList;
        idxNew = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pNew, TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_DYNAMIC);
        testcase( idxNew==0 );
        exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew);
        /* pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm]; // would be needed if pTerm where used again */
        markTermAsChild(pWC, idxNew, idxTerm);
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pList);

      }
    }
  }
}
#endif /* !SQLITE_OMIT_OR_OPTIMIZATION && !SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

/*
................................................................................
static int termIsEquivalence(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  char aff1, aff2;
  CollSeq *pColl;
  if( !OptimizationEnabled(pParse->db, SQLITE_Transitive) ) return 0;
  if( pExpr->op!=TK_EQ && pExpr->op!=TK_IS ) return 0;
  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ) return 0;
  aff1 = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->pLeft);

  aff2 = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->pRight);
  if( aff1!=aff2
   && (!sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(aff1) || !sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(aff2))
  ){
    return 0;
  }
  pColl = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight);
  if( sqlite3IsBinary(pColl) ) return 1;
  return sqlite3ExprCollSeqMatch(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight);
}

/*
** Recursively walk the expressions of a SELECT statement and generate
** a bitmask indicating which tables are used in that expression
** tree.
*/
................................................................................
  pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
  pMaskSet = &pWInfo->sMaskSet;
  pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
  assert( pExpr->op!=TK_AS && pExpr->op!=TK_COLLATE );
  prereqLeft = sqlite3WhereExprUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pLeft);
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_IN ){
    assert( pExpr->pRight==0 );
    if( sqlite3ExprCheckIN(pParse, pExpr) ) return;
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){

      pTerm->prereqRight = exprSelectUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pSelect);
    }else{



      pTerm->prereqRight = sqlite3WhereExprListUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pList);

    }
  }else if( op==TK_ISNULL ){




    pTerm->prereqRight = 0;
  }else{
    pTerm->prereqRight = sqlite3WhereExprUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pRight);

  }
  pMaskSet->bVarSelect = 0;
  prereqAll = sqlite3WhereExprUsageNN(pMaskSet, pExpr);
  if( pMaskSet->bVarSelect ) pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_VARSELECT;
  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ){
    Bitmask x = sqlite3WhereGetMask(pMaskSet, pExpr->iRightJoinTable);
    prereqAll |= x;
................................................................................
  }
  pTerm->prereqAll = prereqAll;
  pTerm->leftCursor = -1;
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  pTerm->eOperator = 0;
  if( allowedOp(op) ){
    int aiCurCol[2];



    Expr *pLeft = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pLeft);

    Expr *pRight = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pRight);
    u16 opMask = (pTerm->prereqRight & prereqLeft)==0 ? WO_ALL : WO_EQUIV;




    if( pTerm->iField>0 ){
      assert( op==TK_IN );
      assert( pLeft->op==TK_VECTOR );
      pLeft = pLeft->x.pList->a[pTerm->iField-1].pExpr;
    }

    if( exprMightBeIndexed(pSrc, prereqLeft, aiCurCol, pLeft, op) ){
................................................................................
  ** no longer used.
  **
  ** This is only required if at least one side of the comparison operation
  ** is not a sub-select.  */
  if( pWC->op==TK_AND 
  && (pExpr->op==TK_EQ || pExpr->op==TK_IS)
  && (nLeft = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft))>1
  && sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pRight)==nLeft
  && ( (pExpr->pLeft->flags & EP_xIsSelect)==0 
    || (pExpr->pRight->flags & EP_xIsSelect)==0)
  ){
    int i;
    for(i=0; i<nLeft; i++){
      int idxNew;
      Expr *pNew;

      Expr *pLeft = sqlite3ExprForVectorField(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, i);

      Expr *pRight = sqlite3ExprForVectorField(pParse, pExpr->pRight, i);

      pNew = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, pExpr->op, pLeft, pRight);
      transferJoinMarkings(pNew, pExpr);
      idxNew = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pNew, TERM_DYNAMIC);
      exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew);
    }
    pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
    pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_CODED|TERM_VIRTUAL;  /* Disable the original */
................................................................................
void sqlite3WhereSplit(WhereClause *pWC, Expr *pExpr, u8 op){
  Expr *pE2 = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);
  pWC->op = op;
  if( pE2==0 ) return;
  if( pE2->op!=op ){
    whereClauseInsert(pWC, pExpr, 0);
  }else{

    sqlite3WhereSplit(pWC, pE2->pLeft, op);
    sqlite3WhereSplit(pWC, pE2->pRight, op);
  }
}

/*
** Initialize a preallocated WhereClause structure.
*/
void sqlite3WhereClauseInit(
................................................................................
    return sqlite3WhereGetMask(pMaskSet, p->iTable);
  }else if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf) ){
    assert( p->op!=TK_IF_NULL_ROW );
    return 0;
  }
  mask = (p->op==TK_IF_NULL_ROW) ? sqlite3WhereGetMask(pMaskSet, p->iTable) : 0;
  if( p->pLeft ) mask |= sqlite3WhereExprUsageNN(pMaskSet, p->pLeft);
  if( p->pRight ){

    mask |= sqlite3WhereExprUsageNN(pMaskSet, p->pRight);
    assert( p->x.pList==0 );
  }else if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect) ){


    if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_VarSelect) ) pMaskSet->bVarSelect = 1;
    mask |= exprSelectUsage(pMaskSet, p->x.pSelect);
  }else if( p->x.pList ){



    mask |= sqlite3WhereExprListUsage(pMaskSet, p->x.pList);


  }
  return mask;
}
Bitmask sqlite3WhereExprUsage(WhereMaskSet *pMaskSet, Expr *p){
  return p ? sqlite3WhereExprUsageNN(pMaskSet,p) : 0;
}
Bitmask sqlite3WhereExprListUsage(WhereMaskSet *pMaskSet, ExprList *pList){
................................................................................
                      pTab->zName, j);
      return;
    }
    pColRef = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_COLUMN, 0, 0);
    if( pColRef==0 ) return;
    pColRef->iTable = pItem->iCursor;
    pColRef->iColumn = k++;
    pColRef->pTab = pTab;

    pTerm = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_EQ, pColRef,
                         sqlite3ExprDup(pParse->db, pArgs->a[j].pExpr, 0));
    whereClauseInsert(pWC, pTerm, TERM_DYNAMIC);
  }
}







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421
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...
425
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439
440
441
442
443
444
...
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
...
831
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833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
...
858
859
860
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862
863
864
865
866
867
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870
871
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873
874
875
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883
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886
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888
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890
891
892
893
...
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911
912
913
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915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
....
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1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073

1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079

1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
....
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
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1109
1110
1111
1112
1113

1114
1115
1116
1117
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1120
1121
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1123
1124
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1370
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1471
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....
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1541
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1546
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1627
** that the collating sequence does not change.  For example:
** "Y collate NOCASE op X" becomes "X op Y" because any collation sequence on
** the left hand side of a comparison overrides any collation sequence 
** attached to the right. For the same reason the EP_Collate flag
** is not commuted.
*/
static void exprCommute(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  u16 expRight, expLeft;
  assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
  expRight = (pExpr->x.pRight->flags & EP_Collate);
  expLeft = (pExpr->pLeft->flags & EP_Collate);
  assert( allowedOp(pExpr->op) && pExpr->op!=TK_IN );
  if( expRight==expLeft ){
    /* Either X and Y both have COLLATE operator or neither do */
    if( expRight ){
      /* Both X and Y have COLLATE operators.  Make sure X is always
      ** used by clearing the EP_Collate flag from Y. */
      pExpr->x.pRight->flags &= ~EP_Collate;
    }else if( sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft)!=0 ){
      /* Neither X nor Y have COLLATE operators, but X has a non-default
      ** collating sequence.  So add the EP_Collate marker on X to cause
      ** it to be searched first. */
      pExpr->pLeft->flags |= EP_Collate;
    }
  }
  SWAP(Expr*,pExpr->x.pRight,pExpr->pLeft);
  if( pExpr->op>=TK_GT ){
    assert( TK_LT==TK_GT+2 );
    assert( TK_GE==TK_LE+2 );
    assert( TK_GT>TK_EQ );
    assert( TK_GT<TK_LE );
    assert( pExpr->op>=TK_GT && pExpr->op<=TK_GE );
    pExpr->op = ((pExpr->op-TK_GT)^2)+TK_GT;
................................................................................
        ** be converted into "x<0", which is incorrect.
        */
        if( sqlite3Isdigit(zNew[0])
         || zNew[0]=='-'
         || (zNew[0]+1=='0' && iTo==1)
        ){
          if( pLeft->op!=TK_COLUMN 
           || sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLeft)!=SQLITE_AFF_TEXT
           || NEVER(pLeft->eX!=EX_Tab)
           || IsVirtual(pLeft->x.pTab)  /* Value might be numeric */
          ){
            sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pPrefix);
            sqlite3ValueFree(pVal);
            return 0;
          }
        }
      }
................................................................................
    ** virtual table on their second argument, which is the same as
    ** the left-hand side operand in their in-fix form.
    **
    **       vtab_column MATCH expression
    **       MATCH(expression,vtab_column)
    */
    pCol = pList->a[1].pExpr;
    if( pCol->op==TK_COLUMN && pCol->eX==EX_Tab && IsVirtual(pCol->x.pTab) ){
      for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aOp); i++){
        if( sqlite3StrICmp(pExpr->u.zToken, aOp[i].zOp)==0 ){
          *peOp2 = aOp[i].eOp2;
          *ppRight = pList->a[0].pExpr;
          *ppLeft = pCol;
          return 1;
        }
................................................................................
    **      OVERLOADED(vtab_column,expression)
    **
    ** Historically, xFindFunction expected to see lower-case function
    ** names.  But for this use case, xFindFunction is expected to deal
    ** with function names in an arbitrary case.
    */
    pCol = pList->a[0].pExpr;
    if( pCol->op==TK_COLUMN && pCol->eX==EX_Tab && IsVirtual(pCol->x.pTab) ){
      sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;
      sqlite3_module *pMod;
      void (*xNotUsed)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
      void *pNotUsed;
      pVtab = sqlite3GetVTable(db, pCol->x.pTab)->pVtab;
      assert( pVtab!=0 );
      assert( pVtab->pModule!=0 );
      pMod = (sqlite3_module *)pVtab->pModule;
      if( pMod->xFindFunction!=0 ){
        i = pMod->xFindFunction(pVtab,2, pExpr->u.zToken, &xNotUsed, &pNotUsed);
        if( i>=SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_FUNCTION ){
          *peOp2 = i;
................................................................................
          return 1;
        }
      }
    }
  }else if( pExpr->op==TK_NE || pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT || pExpr->op==TK_NOTNULL ){
    int res = 0;
    Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
    Expr *pRight = 0;
    if( pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN && pLeft->eX==EX_Tab && IsVirtual(pLeft->x.pTab) ){
      res++;
    }
    if( pExpr->eX==EX_Right && (pRight = pExpr->x.pRight)->op==TK_COLUMN
     && pRight->eX==EX_Tab && IsVirtual(pRight->x.pTab) ){
      res++;
      SWAP(Expr*, pLeft, pRight);
    }
    *ppLeft = pLeft;
    *ppRight = pRight;
    if( pExpr->op==TK_NE ) *peOp2 = SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_NE;
    if( pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT ) *peOp2 = SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_ISNOT;
................................................................................
  int op;                /* Operator for the combined expression */
  int idxNew;            /* Index in pWC of the next virtual term */

  if( (pOne->eOperator & (WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE))==0 ) return;
  if( (pTwo->eOperator & (WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE))==0 ) return;
  if( (eOp & (WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE))!=eOp
   && (eOp & (WO_EQ|WO_GT|WO_GE))!=eOp ) return;
  assert( pOne->pExpr->pLeft!=0 && pOne->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
  assert( pTwo->pExpr->pLeft!=0 && pTwo->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(0,pOne->pExpr->pLeft, pTwo->pExpr->pLeft, -1) ){
    return;
  }
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(0,pOne->pExpr->x.pRight, pTwo->pExpr->x.pRight,-1) ){
    return;
  }
  /* If we reach this point, it means the two subterms can be combined */
  if( (eOp & (eOp-1))!=0 ){
    if( eOp & (WO_LT|WO_LE) ){
      eOp = WO_LE;
    }else{
      assert( eOp & (WO_GT|WO_GE) );
      eOp = WO_GE;
................................................................................
          okToChngToIN = 0;
        }else{
          int affLeft, affRight;
          /* If the right-hand side is also a column, then the affinities
          ** of both right and left sides must be such that no type
          ** conversions are required on the right.  (Ticket #2249)
          */
          assert( pOrTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
          affRight = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pOrTerm->pExpr->x.pRight);
          affLeft = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pOrTerm->pExpr->pLeft);
          if( affRight!=0 && affRight!=affLeft ){
            okToChngToIN = 0;
          }else{
            pOrTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_OR_OK;
          }
        }
................................................................................
      Expr *pNew;            /* The complete IN operator */

      for(i=pOrWc->nTerm-1, pOrTerm=pOrWc->a; i>=0; i--, pOrTerm++){
        if( (pOrTerm->wtFlags & TERM_OR_OK)==0 ) continue;
        assert( pOrTerm->eOperator & WO_EQ );
        assert( pOrTerm->leftCursor==iCursor );
        assert( pOrTerm->u.leftColumn==iColumn );
        assert( pOrTerm->pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
        pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrTerm->pExpr->x.pRight, 0);
        pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pWInfo->pParse, pList, pDup);
        pLeft = pOrTerm->pExpr->pLeft;
      }
      assert( pLeft!=0 );
      pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pLeft, 0);
      pNew = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, pDup, 0);
      if( pNew && pList ){
        int idxNew;
        transferJoinMarkings(pNew, pExpr);
        assert( pNew->eX==EX_None );
        pNew->eX = EX_List;
        pNew->x.pList = pList;
        idxNew = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pNew, TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_DYNAMIC);
        testcase( idxNew==0 );
        exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew);
        /* pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm]; // would be needed if pTerm used again */
        markTermAsChild(pWC, idxNew, idxTerm);
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pList);
        sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pNew);
      }
    }
  }
}
#endif /* !SQLITE_OMIT_OR_OPTIMIZATION && !SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

/*
................................................................................
static int termIsEquivalence(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  char aff1, aff2;
  CollSeq *pColl;
  if( !OptimizationEnabled(pParse->db, SQLITE_Transitive) ) return 0;
  if( pExpr->op!=TK_EQ && pExpr->op!=TK_IS ) return 0;
  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ) return 0;
  aff1 = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->pLeft);
  assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
  aff2 = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->x.pRight);
  if( aff1!=aff2
   && (!sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(aff1) || !sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(aff2))
  ){
    return 0;
  }
  pColl = sqlite3ComparisonExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr);
  if( sqlite3IsBinary(pColl) ) return 1;
  return sqlite3ExprCollSeqMatch(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->x.pRight);
}

/*
** Recursively walk the expressions of a SELECT statement and generate
** a bitmask indicating which tables are used in that expression
** tree.
*/
................................................................................
  pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
  pMaskSet = &pWInfo->sMaskSet;
  pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
  assert( pExpr->op!=TK_AS && pExpr->op!=TK_COLLATE );
  prereqLeft = sqlite3WhereExprUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pLeft);
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_IN ){
    assert( pExpr->eX!=EX_Right );
    if( sqlite3ExprCheckIN(pParse, pExpr) ) return;
    switch( pExpr->eX ){
      case EX_Select: {
        pTerm->prereqRight = exprSelectUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pSelect);

        break;
      }
      case EX_List: {
        pTerm->prereqRight = sqlite3WhereExprListUsage(pMaskSet,pExpr->x.pList);
        break;
      }

    }
  }else{
    assert( op!=TK_ISNULL || pExpr->eX!=EX_Right );
    if( pExpr->eX==EX_Right ){
      pTerm->prereqRight = sqlite3WhereExprUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pRight);
    }else{
      pTerm->prereqRight = 0;
    }
  }
  pMaskSet->bVarSelect = 0;
  prereqAll = sqlite3WhereExprUsageNN(pMaskSet, pExpr);
  if( pMaskSet->bVarSelect ) pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_VARSELECT;
  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ){
    Bitmask x = sqlite3WhereGetMask(pMaskSet, pExpr->iRightJoinTable);
    prereqAll |= x;
................................................................................
  }
  pTerm->prereqAll = prereqAll;
  pTerm->leftCursor = -1;
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  pTerm->eOperator = 0;
  if( allowedOp(op) ){
    int aiCurCol[2];
    Expr *pLeft, *pRight;
    u16 opMask;

    pLeft = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pLeft);
    if( pExpr->eX==EX_Right ){
      pRight = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->x.pRight);

    }else{
      pRight = 0;
    }
    opMask = (pTerm->prereqRight & prereqLeft)==0 ? WO_ALL : WO_EQUIV;
    if( pTerm->iField>0 ){
      assert( op==TK_IN );
      assert( pLeft->op==TK_VECTOR );
      pLeft = pLeft->x.pList->a[pTerm->iField-1].pExpr;
    }

    if( exprMightBeIndexed(pSrc, prereqLeft, aiCurCol, pLeft, op) ){
................................................................................
  ** no longer used.
  **
  ** This is only required if at least one side of the comparison operation
  ** is not a sub-select.  */
  if( pWC->op==TK_AND 
  && (pExpr->op==TK_EQ || pExpr->op==TK_IS)
  && (nLeft = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft))>1
  && ALWAYS(pExpr->eX==EX_Right)
  && sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->x.pRight)==nLeft
  && ( pExpr->pLeft->eX!=EX_Select || pExpr->x.pRight->eX!=EX_Select )
  ){
    int i;
    for(i=0; i<nLeft; i++){
      int idxNew;
      Expr *pNew, *pLeft, *pRight;

      pLeft = sqlite3ExprForVectorField(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, i);
      assert( pExpr->eX==EX_Right );
      pRight = sqlite3ExprForVectorField(pParse, pExpr->x.pRight, i);

      pNew = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, pExpr->op, pLeft, pRight);
      transferJoinMarkings(pNew, pExpr);
      idxNew = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pNew, TERM_DYNAMIC);
      exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew);
    }
    pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
    pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_CODED|TERM_VIRTUAL;  /* Disable the original */
................................................................................
void sqlite3WhereSplit(WhereClause *pWC, Expr *pExpr, u8 op){
  Expr *pE2 = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);
  pWC->op = op;
  if( pE2==0 ) return;
  if( pE2->op!=op ){
    whereClauseInsert(pWC, pExpr, 0);
  }else{
    assert( pE2->eX==EX_Right );
    sqlite3WhereSplit(pWC, pE2->pLeft, op);
    sqlite3WhereSplit(pWC, pE2->x.pRight, op);
  }
}

/*
** Initialize a preallocated WhereClause structure.
*/
void sqlite3WhereClauseInit(
................................................................................
    return sqlite3WhereGetMask(pMaskSet, p->iTable);
  }else if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf) ){
    assert( p->op!=TK_IF_NULL_ROW );
    return 0;
  }
  mask = (p->op==TK_IF_NULL_ROW) ? sqlite3WhereGetMask(pMaskSet, p->iTable) : 0;
  if( p->pLeft ) mask |= sqlite3WhereExprUsageNN(pMaskSet, p->pLeft);
  switch( p->eX ){
    case EX_Right: {
      mask |= sqlite3WhereExprUsageNN(pMaskSet, p->x.pRight);

      break;
    }
    case EX_Select: {
      if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_VarSelect) ) pMaskSet->bVarSelect = 1;
      mask |= exprSelectUsage(pMaskSet, p->x.pSelect);

      break;
    }
    case EX_List: {
      mask |= sqlite3WhereExprListUsage(pMaskSet, p->x.pList);
      break;
    }
  }
  return mask;
}
Bitmask sqlite3WhereExprUsage(WhereMaskSet *pMaskSet, Expr *p){
  return p ? sqlite3WhereExprUsageNN(pMaskSet,p) : 0;
}
Bitmask sqlite3WhereExprListUsage(WhereMaskSet *pMaskSet, ExprList *pList){
................................................................................
                      pTab->zName, j);
      return;
    }
    pColRef = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_COLUMN, 0, 0);
    if( pColRef==0 ) return;
    pColRef->iTable = pItem->iCursor;
    pColRef->iColumn = k++;
    pColRef->x.pTab = pTab;
    pColRef->eX = EX_Tab;
    pTerm = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_EQ, pColRef,
                         sqlite3ExprDup(pParse->db, pArgs->a[j].pExpr, 0));
    whereClauseInsert(pWC, pTerm, TERM_DYNAMIC);
  }
}

Changes to test/bestindex5.test.

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#***********************************************************************
# Test the virtual table interface. In particular the xBestIndex
# method.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set testprefix bestindex4

ifcapable !vtab {
  finish_test
  return
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
................................................................................
do_execsql_test 3.3 { SELECT rowid, * FROM t4 WHERE x!=245; } {}
do_execsql_test 3.4 { SELECT rowid, * FROM t4 WHERE x!='245'; } {}

do_execsql_test 3.5 { SELECT rowid, * FROM t4 WHERE rowid!=1 OR x!='245'; } {}


finish_test








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#***********************************************************************
# Test the virtual table interface. In particular the xBestIndex
# method.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set testprefix bestindex5

ifcapable !vtab {
  finish_test
  return
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
................................................................................
do_execsql_test 3.3 { SELECT rowid, * FROM t4 WHERE x!=245; } {}
do_execsql_test 3.4 { SELECT rowid, * FROM t4 WHERE x!='245'; } {}

do_execsql_test 3.5 { SELECT rowid, * FROM t4 WHERE rowid!=1 OR x!='245'; } {}


finish_test